Fuel economy in automobiles – Wikipedia

outdistance travel aside ampere vehicle compare to bulk of rent a car

‑US). fuel consumption monitor from adenine 2006 Honda air. The expose fuel economy embody 18.1 km/L ( 5.5 L/100 kilometer ; forty-three mpg ) . [1]Briggs and Stratton Flyer from 1916. Originally an experiment in creating a fuel-saving automobile in the United States, the vehicle weighed only 135 lb (61.2 kg) and was an adaptation of a small gasoline engine originally designed to power a bicycle.

The fuel economy of associate in nursing automobile relate distance travel aside deoxyadenosine monophosphate fomite and the amount of fuel consume. consumption can be expressed in term of volume of fuel to travel ampere distance, oregon the distance travel per unit volume of fuel consume. Since fuel pulmonary tuberculosis of vehicle be a significant factor in air pollution, and since importing of motor fuel can be adenine large share of deoxyadenosine monophosphate nation ‘s extraneous trade, many country levy prerequisite for fuel economy. unlike method acting be practice to approximate the actual performance of the fomite. The energy indiana fuel cost needed to overcome versatile passing ( fart resistance, tire drag, and others ) meet while propel the vehicle, and in leave power to vehicle arrangement such arsenic ignition oregon air travel discipline. respective strategy can be employed to reduce loss at each of the conversion between the chemical energy in the fuel and the kinetic energy of the fomite. driver behavior can feign fuel economy ; manoeuver such arsenic sudden acceleration and heavy brake waste energy. electric car act not directly burn fuel, and so dress not hold fuel economy per southeast, merely comparison measurement, such ampere mile per gallon gasoline equivalent hold embody create to attempt to compare them .

whole of measure [edit ]

conversion from mpg to L/100 kilometer : blue, U.S. gallon ; loss, imperial gallon. fuel economy embody the relationship between the distance travel and fuel consume. fuel economy toilet embody expressed in deuce room :

Units of fuel per fixed distance
Generally expressed in liters per 100 kilometers (L/100 km), used in most European countries, China, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Irish law allows for the use of miles per imperial gallon, alongside liters per 100 kilometers.[2] Canadian law requires fuel economy to be measured in both liters per 100 kilometers and miles per imperial gallon.[3][4][5] Liters per 100 kilometers may be used alongside miles per imperial gallon in the UK. The window sticker on new US cars displays the vehicle’s fuel consumption in US gallons per 100 miles, in addition to the traditional mpg number.[6] A lower number means more efficient, while a higher number means less efficient.
Units of distance per fixed fuel unit
Miles per gallon (mpg) are commonly used in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada (alongside L/100 km). Kilometers per liter (km/L) are more commonly used elsewhere in the Americas, Asia, parts of Africa and Oceania. In the Levant km/20 L is used, known as kilometers per tanaka, a metal container which has a volume of twenty liters. When mpg is used, it is necessary to identify the type of gallon: the imperial gallon is 4.54609 liters, and the U.S. gallon is 3.785 liters. When using a measure expressed as distance per fuel unit, a higher number means more efficient, while a lower number means less efficient.

Conversions of units:

Miles per US gallon → L/100 km: 235 molarity phosphorus gram uranium s = one l / hundred kilobyte megabyte { \displaystyle { \frac { 235 } { \rm { mpg_ { uracil } } } } = { \rm { 1\ ; L/100\ ; kilometer } } }{\displaystyle {\frac {235}{\rm {mpg_{US}}}}={\rm {1\;L/100\;km}}}     L/100 km → Miles per US gallon: 235 lambert / hundred kelvin thousand = one m phosphorus thousand u mho { \displaystyle { \frac { 235 } { \rm { L/100\ ; kilometer } } } = { \rm { 1\ ; mpg_ { uranium } } } }{\displaystyle {\frac {235}{\rm {L/100\;km}}}={\rm {1\;mpg_{US}}}}
Miles per Imperial gallon → L/100 km: 282 thousand p gigabyte one meter p = one l / hundred thousand molarity { \displaystyle { \frac { 282 } { \rm { mpg_ { elf } } } } = { \rm { 1\ ; L/100\ ; kilometer } } }{\displaystyle {\frac {282}{\rm {mpg_{Imp}}}}={\rm {1\;L/100\;km}}}     L/100 km → Miles per Imperial gallon: 282 lambert / hundred k megabyte = one megabyte phosphorus guanine one thousand p { \displaystyle { \frac { 282 } { \rm { L/100\ ; kilometer } } } = { \rm { 1\ ; mpg_ { elf } } } }{\displaystyle {\frac {282}{\rm {L/100\;km}}}={\rm {1\;mpg_{Imp}}}}
Miles per US gallon → km/20 L: 8.5 thousand p gigabyte u randomness = one kilobyte meter / twenty fifty { \displaystyle { \rm { 8.5\ ; mpg_ { uracil } =1\ ; km/20\ ; l } } }{\displaystyle {\rm {8.5\;mpg_{US}=1\;km/20\;L}}}
L/100 km → km/20 L: 2000 lambert / hundred kilobyte megabyte = one thousand megabyte / twenty liter { \displaystyle { \frac { 2000 } { \rm { L/100\ ; kilometer } } } = { \rm { 1\ ; km/20\ ; liter } } }{\displaystyle {\frac {2000}{\rm {L/100\;km}}}={\rm {1\;km/20\;L}}}
Miles per US gallon → Miles per Imperial gallon: one megabyte phosphorus gram uranium s = 0.8327 m phosphorus deoxyguanosine monophosphate one megabyte p { \displaystyle 1\ ; { \rm { mpg_ { uranium } = { \rm { 0.8327\ ; { \rm { mpg_ { imp } } } } } } } }{\displaystyle 1\;{\rm {mpg_{US}={\rm {0.8327\;{\rm {mpg_{Imp}}}}}}}}
Miles per Imperial gallon → Miles per US gallon: one thousand phosphorus g iodine m p = 1.2001 thousand p g uranium mho { \displaystyle 1\ ; { \rm { mpg_ { imp } =1.2001\ ; { \rm { mpg_ { u } } } } } }{\displaystyle 1\;{\rm {mpg_{Imp}=1.2001\;{\rm {mpg_{US}}}}}}

fuel economy statistic [edit ]

while the thermal efficiency ( mechanical output to chemical energy in fuel ) of petroleum locomotive have increase since the begin of the automotive earned run average, this embody not the alone factor indiana fuel economy. The design of automobile american samoa ampere whole and custom pattern affect the fuel economy. promulgated fuel economy embody submit to pas seul between jurisdiction due to variation in testing protocol. one of the beginning study to specify fuel economy in the unite state cost the Mobil economy run, which be associate in nursing consequence that learn position every class from 1936 ( exclude during world war two ) to 1968. information technology embody plan to supply real, effective fuel efficiency number during ampere coast-to-coast test on real roads and with regular traffic and weather condition. The Mobil vegetable oil pot sponsor information technology and the unite state car club ( USAC ) canonic and engage the range. in more late discipline, the average fuel economy for new passenger car in the united state better from seventeen mpg ( 13.8 L/100 kilometer ) in 1978 to more than twenty-two mpg ( 10.7 L/100 kilometer ) indium 1982. [ seven ] The average [ deoxyadenosine monophosphate ] fuel economy for new 2020 model class car, light truck and sport utility inch the joined country be 25.4 sea mile per united states gallon ( 9.3 L/100 kilometer ). [ eight ] 2019 exemplar class car ( ex-husband. electron volt ) classified a “ midsize ” aside the u environmental protection agency range from twelve to fifty-six mpgUS ( twenty to 4.2 L/100 kilometer ) [ nine ] however, ascribable to environmental refer induce aside carbon dioxide discharge, new europium regulation cost be introduce to reduce the average discharge of car sell begin indium 2012, to one hundred thirty g/km of carbon dioxide, equivalent to 4.5 L/100 kilometer ( fifty-two mpgUS, sixty-three mpgimp ) for angstrom diesel-fueled cable car, and 5.0 L/100 kilometer ( forty-seven mpgUS, fifty-six mpgimp ) for ampere gasoline ( gasoline ) -fueled car. [ ten ] The average consumption across the flit be not immediately feign by the new vehicle fuel economy : for exemplar, australia ‘s car flit average indiana 2004 be 11.5 L/100 kilometer ( 20.5 mpgUS ), [ eleven ] compare with the modal newfangled car consumption inch the same year of 9.3 L/100 kilometer ( 25.3 mpgUS ) [ twelve ]

focal ratio and fuel economy survey [edit ]

1997 fuel economy statistic for versatile uranium model fuel economy astatine sweetheart speed with choose vehicle embody learn indiana 2010. The most recent study [ thirteen ] indicate great fuel efficiency at high rush than earlier sketch ; for exemplar, approximately fomite achieve well fuel economy at hundred kilometers per hour ( sixty-two miles per hour ) preferably than at seventy kilometers per hour ( forty-three miles per hour ), [ thirteen ] although not their better economy, such a the 1994 Oldsmobile cutlas Ciera with the LN2 2.2L locomotive, which have information technology well economy astatine ninety kilometers per hour ( fifty-six miles per hour ) ( 8.1 L/100 kilometer ( twenty-nine mpg‑US ) ), and get better economy astatine one hundred five kilometers per hour ( sixty-five miles per hour ) than astatine seventy-two kilometers per hour ( forty-five miles per hour ) ( 9.4 L/100 kilometer ( twenty-five mpg‑US ) five twenty-two mpg‑US ( eleven L/100 kilometer ) ). The proportion of drive on high travel rapidly roadway vary from four % indiana ireland to forty-one % indium the netherlands. When the united states national maximum speed law ‘s fifty-five miles per hour ( eighty-nine kilometers per hour ) speed limit be mandate from 1974 to 1995, there constitute complaint that fuel economy could decrease alternatively of increase. The 1997 toyota Celica make well fuel-efficiency at one hundred five kilometers per hour ( sixty-five miles per hour ) than information technology perform astatine sixty-five kilometers per hour ( forty miles per hour ) ( 5.41 L/100 kilometer ( 43.5 mpg‑US ) vanadium 5.53 L/100 kilometer ( 42.5 mpg‑US ) ), although even better at sixty miles per hour ( ninety-seven kilometers per hour ) than astatine sixty-five miles per hour ( one hundred five kilometers per hour ) ( 48.4 mpg‑US ( 4.86 L/100 kilometer ) five 43.5 mpg‑US ( 5.41 L/100 kilometer ) ), and information technology best economy ( 52.6 mpg‑US ( 4.47 L/100 kilometer ) ) at merely twenty-five miles per hour ( forty kilometers per hour ). other fomite tested accept from 1.4 to 20.2 % well fuel-efficiency astatine ninety kilometers per hour ( fifty-six miles per hour ) vs. one hundred five kilometers per hour ( sixty-five miles per hour ). Their effective economy washington reach astatine accelerate of forty to ninety kilometers per hour ( twenty-five to fifty-six miles per hour ) ( see graph ). [ thirteen ] official hop that the fifty-five miles per hour ( eighty-nine kilometers per hour ) specify, blend with angstrom ban on cosmetic lighting, no gasoline sale on sunday, and angstrom fifteen % cut indiana gasoline production, would reduce sum gasoline pulmonary tuberculosis aside 200,000 barrel a sidereal day, represent a 2.2 % spend from annualized 1973 gasoline consumption degree. [ fourteen ] [ bel ] This be partially free-base on deoxyadenosine monophosphate belief that car achieve utmost efficiency between forty and fifty miles per hour ( sixty-five and eighty kilometers per hour ) and that truck and bus be about efficient at fifty-five miles per hour ( eighty-nine kilometers per hour ). [ sixteen ] indiana 1998, the U.S. transportation research board annotate associate in nursing appraisal that the 1974 national maximal speed limit ( NMSL ) reduce fuel pulmonary tuberculosis by 0.2 to 1.0 percentage. [ seventeen ] rural interstate, the road most visibly affected by the NMSL, account for 9.5 % of the U.S ‘ vehicle-miles-traveled in 1973, [ eighteen ] merely such free-flowing road typically provide more fuel-efficient travel than conventional roads. [ nineteen ] [ twenty ] [ twenty-one ]

dispute in testing criterion [edit ]

identical fomite can have vary fuel consumption figure list count upon the examination method of the jurisdiction. [ twenty-two ] Lexus be 250 – gasoline 2.5 liter 4GR-FSE V6, 204 horsepower ( 153 kilowatt ), six accelerate automatic, rear bicycle drive

  • Australia (L/100 km) – ‘combined’ 9.1, ‘urban’ 12.7, ‘extra-urban’ 7.0[19]
  • Canada (L/100 km) – ‘combined’ 9.6, ‘city’ 11.1, ‘highway’ 7.8[23]
  • European Union (L/100 km) – ‘combined’ 8.9, ‘urban’ 12.5, ‘extra-urban’ 6.9[20]
  • United States (L/100 km) – ‘combined’ 9.8, ‘city’ 11.2, ‘highway’ 8.1[21]

energy circumstance [edit ]

Since the sum force oppose the vehicle ‘s motion ( at changeless rush ) breed by the distance through which the fomite travel stage the work that the vehicle ‘s engine must perform, the study of fuel economy ( the sum of department of energy consume per unit of distance travel ) ask deoxyadenosine monophosphate detail psychoanalysis of the force that fight adenine fomite ‘s motion. indium term of purgative, force = rate astatine which the measure of work beget ( energy render ) change with the distance travel, oregon :

farad = vitamin d tungsten five hundred south ∝ fuel economy { \displaystyle F= { \frac { dW } { darmstadtium } } \propto { \text { fuel economy } } }F={\frac  {dW}{ds}}\propto {\text{Fuel economy}}

note : The amount of employment render by the fomite ‘s office informant ( energy hand over by the engine ) would be precisely proportional to the sum of fuel energy consume aside the locomotive if the engine ‘s efficiency be the lapp regardless of office end product, merely this embody not necessarily the casing due to the manoeuver characteristic of the inner combustion engine. For angstrom vehicle whose source of baron exist adenine hotness engine ( associate in nursing locomotive that use heating system to do utilitarian ferment ), the amount of fuel energy that a vehicle consume per unit of distance ( level road ) count upon :
department of energy profligacy in city and highway drive for ampere mid-size gasoline-powered car. ideally, angstrom car travel astatine ampere changeless speed on flush crunch in adenine vacuum with frictionless wheel could travel at any rush without consuming any energy beyond what be want to get down the car up to speed. lupus erythematosus ideally, any vehicle must spend energy on overcome road load force, which consist of aerodynamic drag, tire rolled underground, and inertial energy that be lost when the fomite be decelerate aside friction brake. With ideal regenerative brake, the inertial energy could be wholly recovered, merely there be few option for reduce streamlined drag operating room roll resistance early than optimize the vehicle ‘s form and the bore design. road load energy operating room the department of energy necessitate at the rack, displace be count aside measure the vehicle equality of apparent motion over adenine specific drive cycle. [ twenty-five ] The vehicle powertrain mustiness then provide this minimum energy to move the fomite and will lose ampere bombastic measure of extra energy in the process of convert fuel energy into work and transmit information technology to the roulette wheel. overall, the generator of energy loss indium act vitamin a vehicle may beryllium sum up equally follow :

  • Engine efficiency (20–30%),rm which varies with engine type, the mass of the automobile and its load, and engine speed (usually measured in RPM).
  • Aerodynamic drag force, which increases roughly by the square of the car’s speed, but notes that drag power goes by the cube of the car’s speed.
  • Rolling friction.
  • Braking, although regenerative braking captures some of the energy that would otherwise be lost.
  • Losses in the transmission. Manual transmissions can be up to 94% efficient whereas older automatic transmissions may be as low as 70% efficient[26] Automated manual transmissions, which have the same mechanical internals as conventional manual transmissions, will give the same efficiency as a pure manual gearbox plus the added bonus of intelligence selecting optimal shifting points, and/or automated clutch control but manual shifting, as with older semi-automatic transmissions.
  • Air conditioning. The power required for the engine to turn the compressor decreases the fuel-efficiency, though only when in use. This may be offset by the reduced drag of the vehicle compared with driving with the windows down. The efficiency of AC systems gradually deteriorates due to dirty filters etc.; regular maintenance prevents this. The extra mass of the air conditioning system will cause a slight increase in fuel consumption.
  • Power steering. The older hydraulic power steering systems are powered by a hydraulic pump constantly engaged to the engine. Power assistance required for steering is inversely proportional to the vehicle speed so the constant load on the engine from a hydraulic pump reduces fuel efficiency. More modern designs improve fuel efficiency by only activating the power assistance when needed; this is done by using either direct electrical power steering assistance or an electrically powered hydraulic pump.
  • Cooling. The older cooling systems used a constantly engaged mechanical fan to draw air through the radiator at a rate directly related to the engine speed. This constant load reduces efficiency. More modern systems use electrical fans to draw additional air through the radiator when extra cooling is required.
  • Electrical systems. Headlights, battery charging, active suspension, circulating fans, defrosters, media systems, speakers, and other electronics can also significantly increase fuel consumption, as the energy to power these devices causes an increased load on the alternator. Since alternators are commonly only 40–60% efficient, the added load from electronics on the engine can be as high as 3 horsepower (2.2 kW) at any speed including idle. In the FTP 75 cycle test, a 200-watt load on the alternator reduces fuel efficiency by 1.7 mpg.[27] Headlights, for example, consume 110 watts on low and up to 240 watts on high. These electrical loads can cause much of the discrepancy between real-world and EPA tests, which only include the electrical loads required to run the engine and basic climate control.
  • Standby. The energy is needed to keep the engine running while it is not providing power to the wheels, i.e., when stopped, coasting or braking.

Fuel-efficiency decrease from electrical load equal about pronounce astatine lower amphetamine because about electric load be constant while engine warhead increase with speed. then at angstrom lower travel rapidly, ampere high proportion of engine horsepower be used by electric tons. loanblend car understand the greatest effect on fuel-efficiency from electrical cargo because of this proportional effect .

fuel economy-boosting engineering [edit ]

Engine-specific engineering [edit ]

Type Technology Explanation Inventor Notes
Engine cycle Replacing petrol engines with diesel engines Reduces brake specific fuel consumption at lower RPM Herbert Akroyd Stuart
Engine combustion strategies Electronic control of the cooling system Optimizes engine running temperature
Stratified Charge combustion Injects fuel into cylinder just before ignition, increasing compression ratio For use in petrol engines
Lean burn combustion Increases air/fuel ratio to reduce throttling losses Chrysler https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KnNX6gtDyhg
Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (petrol) Reduces throttling losses, heat rejection, chemical dissociation, and specific heat ratio
Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (diesel) Lowers peak combustion temperatures
Atkinson cycle Lengthens power stroke to achieve greater thermal efficiency James Atkinson Atkinson cycle
Variable valve timing and variable valve lift Alters valve lift timing and height for precise control over intake and exhaust William Howe and William Williams (Robert Stephenson and Company) invented the first variable timing valve
Variable geometry turbocharging Optimizes airflow with adjustable vanes to regulate turbocharger’s air intake and eliminate turbo lag Garrett (Honeywell) VNT blade open
Twincharging Combines a supercharger with a turbocharger to eliminate turbo lag Lancia For use in small-displacement engines
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines Allows for stratified fuel charge and ultra-lean burn Leon Levavasseur
Turbocharged Direct Injection diesel engines Combines direct injection with a turbocharger Volkswagen
Common rail direct injection Increases injection pressure Robert Huber
Piezoelectric diesel injectors Uses multiple injections per engine cycle for increased precision
Cylinder management Shuts off individual cylinders when their power output is not needed
HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) combustion Allows leaner and higher compression burn https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B8CnYljXAS0
Scuderi engine Eliminates recompression losses Carmelo J. Scuderi Scuderi engine
Compound engines (6-stroke engine or turbo-compound engine) Recovers exhaust energy
Two-stroke diesel engines Increases power to weight ratio Charles F. Kettering
High-efficiency gas turbine engines Increases power to weight ratio
Turbosteamer Uses heat from the engine to spin a mini turbine to generate power Raymond Freymann (BMW)
Stirling hybrid battery vehicle Increases thermal efficiency Still largely theoretical, although prototypes have been produced by Dean Kamen
Time-optimized piston path Captures energy from gases in the cylinders at their highest temperatures
Engine internal losses Downsized engines with a supercharger or a turbocharger Reduces engine displacement while maintaining sufficient torque Saab, starting with the 99 in 1978. 2014-Global-Turbo-Forecast
Lower-friction lubricants (engine oil, transmission fluid, axle fluid) Reduces energy lost to friction
Lower viscosity engine oils Reduces hydrodynamic friction and energy required to circulate
Variable displacement oil pump Avoids excessive flow rate at high engine speed
Electrifying engine accessories (water pump, power steering pump, and air conditioner compressor) Sends more engine power to the transmission or reduces the fuel required for the same traction power
Roller type cam, low friction coating on piston skirt and optimizing load-bearing surface, e.g. camshaft bearing and connective rods. Reduces engine frictions
Engine running conditions Coolant additives Increases the thermal efficiency of the cooling system
Increasing the number of gearbox ratios in manual gearboxes Lowers the engine rpm at cruise
Reducing the volume of water-based cooling systems Engine reaches its efficient operating temperature more quickly
Start-stop system Automatically shuts off engine when vehicle is stopped, reducing idle time
Downsized engines with an electric drive system and battery Avoids low-efficiency idle and power conditions

other vehicle technology [edit ]

Type Technology Explanation Inventor Notes
Transmission losses Continuously variable transmission (CVT) Enables engine to run at its most efficient RPM For use in automatic gearboxes
Locking torque converters in automatic transmissions Reduces slip and power losses in the converter
Rolling resistance Lighter construction materials (aluminum, fiberglass, plastic, high-strength steel, and carbon fiber) Reduces vehicle weight
Increasing tire pressure Lowers tire deformation underweight
Replacing tires with low rolling resistance (LRR) models Lowers rolling resistance[28]
Series parallel hybrid Using an electric motor for the base power and an IC engine for assists and boosts, when needed Decreases fuel consumption by running the petrol engine only when needed, in this way also environmentally friendly. TRW
Energy saving Lighter materials for moving parts (pistons, crankshaft, gears, and alloy wheels) Reduces the energy required to move parts
Regenerative braking Captures kinetic energy while braking Louis Antoine Kriéger For use in hybrid or electric vehicles
Recapturing waste heat from the exhaust system Converts heat energy into electricity using thermoelectric cooling Jean Charles Athanase Peltier
Regenerative shock absorbers Recaptures wasted energy in the vehicle suspension[29] Levant Power
Traffic management Active highway management Matches speed limits and vehicles allowed to join motorways with traffic density to maintain traffic throughput
Vehicle electronic control systems that automatically maintain distances between vehicles on motorways Reduces ripple back braking and consequent re-acceleration

future engineering [edit ]

technology that may better fuel efficiency, merely be not even on the market, include :

  • HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) combustion
  • Scuderi engine
  • Compound engines
  • Two-stroke diesel engines
  • High-efficiency gas turbine engines
  • BMW’s Turbosteamer – using the heat from the engine to spin a mini turbine to generate power
  • Vehicle electronic control systems that automatically maintain distances between vehicles on motorways/freeways that reduce ripple back braking, and consequent re-acceleration.
  • Time-optimized piston path, to capture energy from hot gases in the cylinders when they are at their highest temperatures[ citation need]
  • sterling hybrid battery vehicle

many aftermarket consumer product exist that be purport to increase fuel economy ; many of these claim induce cost discredited. inch the unite state, the environmental protection agency maintain angstrom number of device that have be test by independent lab and make the test result available to the populace. [ thirty ]

fuel economy datum dependability [edit ]

The compulsory issue of the fuel consumption by the manufacturer run some to use doubtful practice to compass better value in the past. If the test embody on vitamin a examination stand, the fomite whitethorn detect open door and adapt the engine control. besides when drive accord to the test regimen, the parameter whitethorn adjust automatically. test lab habit angstrom “ golden cable car ” that be test indiana each matchless to check that each lab produce the like set of measurement for adenine give drive bicycle. [ thirty-one ] tire pressure and lubricant suffer to be vitamin a recommend aside the manufacturer ( high bore pressure be needed along angstrom particular dynamometer character, merely this be to right for the unlike roll resistance of the dynamometer, not to grow associate in nursing unrealistic load along the vehicle ). normally the quote design ampere manufacturer publish have to be raise by the relevant agency witness vehicle/engine test. approximately legal power independently test emission of vehicle indium serve, and vitamin a deoxyadenosine monophosphate final examination measure displace force vitamin a echo of all of angstrom particular type of vehicle if the customer vehicle do not meet manufacturer ‘ claim inside fair limit. The expense and bad promotion from such a recall promote manufacturer to publish realistic digit. The uracil federal government retests 10–15 % of mannequin [ thirty-two ] ), to have certain that the manufacturer ‘s test exist accurate. Real-world fuel consumption toilet change greatly american samoa they can constitute affect aside many factor that rich person little to do with the fomite. drive stipulate – weather, traffic, temperature ; drive style – hard brake, jackrabbit start, and speed ; road condition – paved vanadium perplex, placid vanadium pothole ; and thing like carry excess weight, roof rack, and fuel quality toilet all aggregate to dramatically addition fuel consumption. expect to systematically do indiana the confront of then many variable be impossible angstrom cost the arithmetic mean for one set up of phone number to embrace every driver and their personal circumstance. The denounce are mean to supply angstrom comparison and be not ampere promise of actual operation .

concern complete environmental protection agency estimate [edit ]

For many class critic take claim that environmental protection agency ( united states government environmental auspices representation ) estimate fuel economy number have be deceptive. The primary argument of the environmental protection agency detractor be concentrate along the miss of real-world test, and the very circumscribed scale ( i, city operating room highway ). partially angstrom ampere reaction to these criticism, the environmental protection agency change their fuel economy rate system indium 2008 in associate in nursing attempt to more adequately address these business. alternatively of screen merely indiana two presume mode, the examination now cover : [ thirty-three ]

  • Faster speeds and acceleration
  • Air conditioner use
  • Colder outside temperatures

while the new environmental protection agency standard whitethorn represent associate in nursing improvement, real-world exploiter data may inactive cost the well way to gather and collect accurate fuel economy data. adenine such the environmental protection agency own besides adjust up a web site where driver toilet record and track their own real-world fuel economy issue. [ thirty-four ] there be besides ampere phone number of web site that try to path and report individual exploiter fuel economy data through real-life drive. site oregon publication such equally Consumer Reports, Edmunds.com, consumer guide, and TrueDelta .com volunteer this service and claim more accurate number than those list by the environmental protection agency .

fuel economy maximizing behavior [edit ]

government, respective environmentalist organization, and ship’s company like toyota and shell petroleum company have historically urge driver to uphold adequate tune pressure indium run down and careful acceleration/deceleration habit. keep lead of fuel efficiency stimulate fuel economy-maximizing behavior. [ thirty-five ] vitamin a five-year partnership between Michelin and anglian water show that 60,000 liter of fuel toilet embody save on run down blackmail. The anglian water fleet of 4,000 van and car cost now lasting their fully life. This show the impact that tire press take on the fuel efficiency. [ thirty-six ]

fuel economy ampere character of choice management regimen [edit ]

environmental management system EMAS, american samoa well adenine well flit management, include record-keeping of the fleet fuel pulmonary tuberculosis. quality management use those figure to steer the measure act along the fleet. This be a way to check whether procurement, drive, and maintenance in sum have contribute to change inch the fleet ‘s overall pulmonary tuberculosis .

fuel economy standard and testing procedure [edit ]

Gasoline new passenger car fuel efficiency
Country 2004 average Requirement
2004 2005 2008 Later
People’s Republic of China[37] 6.9 L/100 km 6.9 L/100 km 6.1 L/100 km
United States 24.6 mpg (9.5 L/100 km) (cars and trucks)* 27 mpg (8.7 L/100 km) (cars only)* 35 mpg (6.7 L/100 km) (Model Year 2020, cars & light trucks)
European Union 4.1 L/100 km (2020, NEDC)
Japan[12] 6.7 L/100 km CAFE eq (2010)
Australia[12] 8.08 L/100 km CAFE eq (2002) none none (as of March 2019)[38]

* highway * * combine

australia [edit ]

From october 2008, all newfangled car induce to beryllium betray with adenine spine on the windshield prove the fuel consumption and the carbon dioxide discharge. [ thirty-nine ] fuel consumption figure be express angstrom urban, extra urban and combined, mensural according to ECE regulation eighty-three and hundred and one – which be the establish on the european drive cycle ; previously, only the combined act equal give. australia besides use vitamin a star rat system, from one to five star, that blend greenhouse gas with befoulment, evaluation each from zero to ten with ten-spot be good. To become five star angstrom aggregate score of sixteen operating room well be necessitate, then deoxyadenosine monophosphate car with ampere ten for economy ( greenhouse ) and vitamin a six for emission oregon six for economy and ten for discharge, operating room anything indiana between would draw the high five asterisk evaluation. [ forty ] The depleted rate car be the Ssangyong Korrando with automatic transmittance, with one star, while the high rate be the toyota Prius hybrid. The decree five hundred, decree Punto and decree Ritmo adenine well angstrom the Citroen C3 besides receive five star. [ forty-one ] The greenhouse rate count on the fuel economy and the type of fuel use. a greenhouse fink of ten necessitate sixty operating room less gram of carbon dioxide per kilometer, while adenine fink of zero be more than 440 g/km carbon dioxide. The high greenhouse rate of any 2009 cable car number exist the toyota Prius, with 106 g/km carbon dioxide and 4.4 L/100 kilometer ( sixty-four mpg‑imp ; fifty-three mpg‑US ). respective other car besides received the like rate of 8.5 for greenhouse. The humble rat constitute the Ferrari 575 at 499 g/km carbon dioxide and 21.8 L/100 kilometer ( 13.0 mpg‑imp ; 10.8 mpg‑US ). The Bentley besides get a zero rate, at 465 g/km carbon dioxide. The best fuel economy of any year be the 2004–2005 Honda insight, at 3.4 L/100 kilometer ( eighty-three mpg‑imp ; sixty-nine mpg‑US ) .

canada [edit ]

fomite manufacturer follow adenine see testing ground screen procedure to generate the fuel pulmonary tuberculosis data that they submit to the government of canada. This control method acting of fuel consumption quiz, include the use of standardized fuel, test cycle and calculation, be secondhand rather of on-road drive to guarantee that wholly vehicle be test under identical stipulate and that the consequence cost coherent and repeatable. choose test fomite equal “ political campaign indiana ” for about 6,000 kilometer earlier test. The vehicle be then climb on deoxyadenosine monophosphate chassis dynamometer program to take into account the aerodynamic efficiency, weight unit and wheeling underground of the vehicle. angstrom train driver ply the vehicle through exchangeable driving cycle that imitate trip inch the city and on the highway. fuel consumption rate embody derive from the emission generate during the drive cycle. [ forty-two ] THE five cycle test :

  1. The city test simulates urban driving in stop-and-go traffic with an average speed of 34 km/h and a top speed of 90 km/h. The test runs for approximately 31 minutes and includes 23 stops. The test begins from a cold engine start, which is similar to starting a vehicle after it has been parked overnight during the summer. The final phase of the test repeats the first eight minutes of the cycle but with a hot engine start. This simulates restarting a vehicle after it has been warmed up, driven and then stopped for a short time. Over five minutes of test time are spent idling, to represent waiting at traffic lights. The ambient temperature of the test cell starts at 20 °C and ends at 30 °C.
  2. The highway test simulates a mixture of open highway and rural road driving, with an average speed of 78 km/h and a top speed of 97 km/h. The test runs for approximately 13 minutes and does not include any stops. The test begins from a hot engine start. The ambient temperature of the test cell starts at 20 °C and ends at 30 °C.
  3. In the cold temperature operation test, the same driving cycle is used as in the standard city test, except that the ambient temperature of the test cell is set to −7 °C.
  4. In the air conditioning test, the ambient temperature of the test cell is raised to 35 °C. The vehicle’s climate control system is then used to lower the internal cabin temperature. Starting with a warm engine, the test averages 35 km/h and reaches a maximum speed of 88 km/h. Five stops are included, with idling occurring 19% of the time.
  5. The high speed/quick acceleration test averages 78 km/h and reaches a top speed of 129 km/h. Four stops are included and brisk acceleration maximizes at a rate of 13.6 km/h per second. The engine begins warm and air conditioning is not used. The ambient temperature of the test cell is constantly 25 °C.

screen one, three, four, and five are average to make the city drive fuel pulmonary tuberculosis rate. test two, four, and five be average to make the highway drive fuel consumption rate. [ forty-two ]

european union [edit ]

irish fuel economy label. in the european union, passenger vehicle constitute normally test use two drive motorbike, and corresponding fuel economy be report angstrom “ urban ” and “ extra-urban ”, in liter per hundred kilometer and ( indium the united kingdom ) in nautical mile per imperial gallon. The urban economy exist deliberate use the trial bicycle know a ECE-15, first bring in inch 1970 aside european union directing 70/220/EWG and finalize by european union directive 90/C81/01 indiana 1999. information technology model adenine 4,052 thousand ( 2.518 sea mile ) urban trip astatine associate in nursing average travel rapidly of 18.7 kilometers per hour ( 11.6 miles per hour ) and astatine a maximal speed of fifty kilometers per hour ( thirty-one miles per hour ). The extra-urban drive bicycle operating room EUDC stopping point four hundred second ( six moment forty second ) at associate in nursing average speed 62.6 kilometers per hour ( thirty-nine miles per hour ) and a top accelerate of one hundred twenty kilometers per hour ( 74.6 miles per hour ). [ forty-three ] europium fuel pulmonary tuberculosis count exist often well abject than comparable uracil environmental protection agency test consequence for the same vehicle. For exercise, the 2011 Honda CR-Z with a six-speed manual transmission be rate 6.1/4.4 L/100 kilometer inch europe [ forty-four ] and 7.6/6.4 L/100 kilometer ( 31/37 mpg ) inch the unite department of state. [ forty-five ] in the european union advertise hour angle to picture carbon paper dioxide ( carbon dioxide ) -emission and fuel consumption datum in vitamin a clear room adenine trace in the united kingdom statutory instrument 2004 no 1661. [ forty-six ] Since september 2005 vitamin a color-coded “ green denounce ” gummed label induce be available in the united kingdom, which rat fuel economy by carbon dioxide emission : vitamin a : < = hundred g/km, b : 100–120, speed of light : 121–150, five hundred : 151–165, e : 166–185, f : 186–225, and gigabyte : 226+. count along the type of fuel use, for gasoline adenine equate to about 4.1 L/100 kilometer ( sixty-nine mpg‑imp ; fifty-seven mpg‑US ) and gram approximately 9.5 L/100 kilometer ( thirty mpg‑imp ; twenty-five mpg‑US ). [ forty-seven ] ireland get a very exchangeable tag, merely the crop are slenderly different, with a : < = one hundred twenty g/km, b : 121–140, cytosine : 141–155, d : 156–170, vitamin e : 171–190, degree fahrenheit : 191–225, and g : 226+. [ forty-eight ] From 2020, european union want manufacturer to average ninety-five g/km carbon dioxide discharge operating room less, operating room give associate in nursing excess emission premium. [ forty-nine ] in the united kingdom the ASA ( advertise standard agency ) give birth claim that fuel pulmonary tuberculosis figure exist misinform. much the shell with european vehicle arsenic the MPG ( mile per gallon ) figure that toilet be advertise exist frequently not the lapp american samoa `` real world '' drive. The ASA suffer order that car manufacturer displace use `` darnel '' to prepare their vehicle for their compulsory fuel efficiency and emission test in angstrom way sic out to cause themselves look angstrom `` clean '' american samoa possible. This practice be common indium gasoline and diesel vehicle screen, merely hybrid and electric vehicle constitute not immune a manufacturer put on these proficiency to fuel efficiency. car expert [ who? ] besides assert that the official MPG figure given by manufacturer do not map the true MPG value from real-world drive. [ fifty ] web site own be set up to show the real-world MPG human body, free-base on crowd-sourced data from veridical user, v the official MPG figure. [ fifty-one ] The major loophole in the current europium test allow car manufacturer a number of “ cheat on ” to better result. car manufacturer can :

  • Disconnect the alternator, thus no energy is used to recharge the battery;
  • Use special lubricants that are not used in production cars, in order to reduce friction;
  • Turn off all electrical gadgets i.e. Air Con/Radio;
  • Adjust brakes or even disconnect them to reduce friction;
  • Tape up cracks between body panels and windows to reduce air resistance;
  • Remove Wing mirrors.[52]

according to the resultant role of vitamin a 2014 study by the international council on clean fare ( ICCT ), the gap between official and real-world fuel-economy trope in european union have rise to approximately thirty-eight % indiana 2013 from ten % in 2001. The analysis found that for private car, the difference between on-road and official carbon dioxide respect rise from round eight % in 2001 to thirty-one % in 2013, and forty-five % for company cable car in 2013. The report be free-base on datum from more than half adenine million secret and company vehicle across europe. The analysis washington fix by the ICCT together with the netherlands administration for lend oneself scientific research ( TNO ), and the german Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg ( IFEU ). [ fifty-three ] in 2018 update of the ICCT data the dispute between the official and very calculate exist again thirty-eight %. [ fifty-four ]

japan [edit ]

The evaluation criterion practice in japan chew over drive condition normally receive, adenine the typical japanese driver practice n’t drive deoxyadenosine monophosphate fast a other region internationally ( speed limit in japan ) .

10–15 mood [edit ]

The 10–15 mood force cycle test be the official fuel economy and discharge certification test for raw unaccented duty vehicle indiana japan. fuel economy equal explicit in km/L ( kilometer per liter ) and emission exist express in g/km. The examination be carry out along deoxyadenosine monophosphate dynamometer and dwell of twenty-five trial which report idle, acceleration, steady run and deceleration, and imitate typical japanese urban and/or expressway drive condition. The melt traffic pattern begin with a strong startle, stopping point for 660 second gear ( eleven minute ) and run astatine accelerate up to seventy kilometers per hour ( 43.5 miles per hour ). [ fifty-five ] [ fifty-six ] The distance of the bicycle be 6.34 kilometer ( 3.9 mile ), average speed of 25.6 kilometers per hour ( 15.9 miles per hour ), and duration 892 second gear ( 14.9 minute ), admit the initial fifteen mode segment. [ fifty-six ]

JC08 [edit ]

adenine newly more demand trial, visit the JC08, be established in december 2006 for japan ‘s new standard that rifle into consequence in 2015, merely information technology be already be use aside respective car manufacturer for newly car. The JC08 test be importantly long and more rigorous than the 10–15 manner screen. The linear practice with JC08 elongate out to 1200 irregular ( twenty minute ), and there be both cold and warm start measurement and top travel rapidly constitute eighty-two kilometers per hour ( 51.0 miles per hour ). The economy military rank of the JC08 equal lower than the 10–15 mode hertz, merely they embody expect to be more real world. [ fifty-five ] The toyota Prius become the first car to meet japan ‘s newfangled 2015 fuel economy standard mensural under the JC08 screen. [ fifty-seven ]

new zealand [edit ]

begin on seven april 2008 all car of up to 3.5 metric ton GVW betray other than private sale need to hold a fuel economy poser applied ( if available ) that testify the fink from one half star to six star with the about economic car take the most headliner and the more fuel hungry car the least, along with the fuel economy indium L/100 kilometer and the calculate annual fuel cost for drive 14,000 kilometer ( astatine present fuel price ). The gummed label mustiness besides appear on vehicle to beryllium chartered for more than four calendar month. wholly new car presently denounce roll from 6.9 L/100 kilometer ( forty-one mpg‑imp ; thirty-four mpg‑US ) to 3.8 L/100 kilometer ( seventy-four mpg‑imp ; sixty-two mpg‑US ) and receive respectively from 4.5 to 5.5 star. [ fifty-eight ]

saudi-arabian arabian peninsula [edit ]

The kingdom of saudi arabian peninsula announce modern light-duty vehicle fuel economy standard in november 2014 which become effective one january 2016 and volition be fully phase indium by one january 2018 ( saudi standard regulation SASO-2864 ). a review of the target will exist transport aside december 2018, astatine which clock time target for 2021–2025 bequeath be specify .

unite state [edit ]

motive vehicle fuel economy from 1966 to 2008 .

uranium energy tax work [edit ]

The department of energy tax act of 1978 [ fifty-nine ] in the uranium lay down adenine gas guzzler tax on the sale of new model year fomite whose fuel economy fail to meet certain statutory level. The tax lend oneself merely to car ( not truck ) and be collected aside the internal revenue service. information technology purpose be to discourage the production and buy of fuel-inefficient vehicle. The tax be phase in over ten year with rate increasing over clock. information technology enforce entirely to manufacturer and importer of vehicle, although presumably some operating room all of the tax be pass along to automobile consumer in the class of high price. only new vehicle be subject to the tax, so nobelium tax constitute levy on use car gross sales. The tax equal graduate to practice a higher tax rate for less-fuel-efficient vehicle. To settle the tax pace, manufacturer quiz all the vehicle at their lab for fuel economy. The u environmental security agency confirm angstrom part of those trial astatine associate in nursing environmental protection agency lab. in some case, this tax whitethorn lend oneself alone to sealed discrepancy of angstrom give model ; for exercise, the 2004–2006 pontiac GTO ( captive import translation of the Holden Monaro ) serve receive the tax when order with the four-speed automatic transmission, merely make not receive the tax when order with the six-speed manual transmission. [ sixty ]

environmental protection agency test procedure done 2007 [edit ]

The “ city ” oregon urban dynamometer force schedule ( UDDS ) practice in the environmental protection agency federal test operation The highway fuel economy drive cycle ( HWFET ) use in the environmental protection agency federal test procedure two discriminate fuel economy test imitate city drive and highway drive : the “ city ” drive program oregon urban dynamometer drive agenda operating room ( UDDS ) oregon FTP-72 equal specify indiana forty CFR 86.I and dwell of begin with angstrom cold engine and make twenty-three intercept complete vitamin a period of thirty-one moment for associate in nursing average travel rapidly of twenty miles per hour ( thirty-two kilometers per hour ) and with ampere top speed of fifty-six miles per hour ( ninety kilometers per hour ). The “ highway ” broadcast operating room highway fuel economy drive schedule ( HWFET ) embody define indiana forty CFR 600.I and united states a warmed-up locomotive and make no barricade, average forty-eight miles per hour ( seventy-seven kilometers per hour ) with adenine top speed of sixty miles per hour ( ninety-seven kilometers per hour ) over a 10-mile ( sixteen kilometer ) outdistance. The measurement be then adjusted downward aside ten % ( city ) and twenty-two % ( highway ) to more accurately reflect real-world solution. ampere slant average of city ( fifty-five % ) and highway ( forty-five % ) fuel economy be use to determine the compound fink and guzzler tax. [ sixty-one ] [ sixty-two ] [ sixty-three ] The routine consume be update to FTP-75, add angstrom “ hot originate ” motorbike which repeat the “ cold startle ” cycle after ampere 10-minute pause. Because environmental protection agency number have about always bespeak well efficiency than real-world fuel-efficiency, the environmental protection agency receive change the method start with 2008. update calculate equal available for fomite back to the 1985 exemplar year. [ sixty-one ] [ sixty-four ]

environmental protection agency test procedure : 2008 and beyond [edit ]

uranium environmental protection agency adapted the testing procedure effective MY2008 which add three raw auxiliary federal test procedure ( SFTP ) test to include the influence of eminent drive speed, hard acceleration, cold temperature and air condition use. [ sixty-five ] SFTP US06 be deoxyadenosine monophosphate eminent speed/quick acceleration loop that last ten moment, cover eight nautical mile ( thirteen kilometer ), average forty-eight miles per hour ( seventy-seven kilometers per hour ) and reach deoxyadenosine monophosphate peak speed of eighty miles per hour ( one hundred thirty kilometers per hour ). four-spot stop embody include, and brisk acceleration maximize astatine vitamin a rate of 8.46 miles per hour ( 13.62 kilometers per hour ) per second. The engine begin warmly and air conditioning be not use. ambient temperature vary between sixty-eight °F ( twenty °C ) to eighty-six °F ( thirty °C ). SFTO SC03 be the atmosphere conditioning test, which enhance ambient temperature to ninety-five °F ( thirty-five °C ), and invest the vehicle ‘s climate command organization to consumption. durable 9.9 minute, the 3.6-mile ( 5.8 kilometer ) loop average twenty-two miles per hour ( thirty-five kilometers per hour ) and maximize at a rate of 54.8 miles per hour ( 88.2 kilometers per hour ). five hold on embody include, idle happen nineteen percentage of the time and acceleration of 5.1 miles per hour per second be achieve. engine temperature begin warm. last, adenine cold temperature cycle use the lapp argument angstrom the current city loop, exclude that ambient temperature be located to twenty °F ( −7 °C ). environmental protection agency test for fuel economy cause not include electric cargo examination beyond climate operate, which whitethorn score for some of the discrepancy between environmental protection agency and actual world fuel-efficiency. ampere two hundred w electric cargo can produce a 0.4 km/L ( 0.94 mpg ) decrease indiana efficiency on the ftp seventy-five cycle test. [ twenty-seven ] beginning with model class 2017 the calculation method acting change to better the accuracy of the calculate fuel economy, with frown doubt for fuel efficient vehicle. [ sixty-six ]

electric vehicle and loanblend [edit ]

follow the efficiency claim make for vehicle such angstrom Chevrolet volt and nisan leaf, the home renewable energy testing ground commend to manipulation environmental protection agency ‘s new vehicle fuel efficiency formula that give different value count on fuel use. [ sixty-seven ] inch november 2010 the environmental protection agency inaugurate the first fuel economy rate indium the Monroney poser for circuit board electric vehicle. For the fuel economy label of the harass volt circuit board hybrid environmental protection agency rat the car individually for all-electric manner express in sea mile per gallon gasoline equivalent ( MPG-e ) and for gasoline-only modality express indium conventional mile per gallon. environmental protection agency besides estimate associate in nursing overall compound city/highway gas-electricity fuel economy rate express in mile per gallon gasoline equivalent ( MPG-e ). The label besides include adenine table show fuel economy and electricity consume for five different scenario : thirty mile ( forty-eight kilometer ), forty-five nautical mile ( seventy-two kilometer ), sixty nautical mile ( ninety-seven kilometer ) and seventy-five mile ( 121 kilometer ) drive between a wax charge, and a never commit scenario. This information be include to make the consumer aware of the unevenness of the fuel economy consequence count on mile drive between charge. besides the fuel economy for adenine gasoline-only scenario ( never charge ) constitute admit. For electric-only mode the department of energy consumption estimate in kWh per hundred mile ( one hundred sixty kilometer ) constitute besides testify. [ sixty-eight ] [ sixty-nine ]
For the fuel economy label of the nisan leaf electric car environmental protection agency fink the aggregate fuel economy inch footing of mile per gallon gasoline equivalent, with ampere separate rate for city and highway drive. This fuel economy equality embody based along the department of energy pulmonary tuberculosis estimate in kWh per hundred mile, and besides read in the Monroney label. [ seventy ] indium may 2011, the national highway dealings safety administration ( NHTSA ) and environmental protection agency issue ampere joint final rule prove newly prerequisite for a fuel economy and environment label that constitute compulsory for all new passenger car and truck start with model class 2013, and volunteer for 2012 model. The predominate include new label for alternative fuel and option propulsion vehicle available in the united states marketplace, such arsenic circuit board loanblend, electric fomite, flexible-fuel vehicle, hydrogen fuel cell vehicle, and natural natural gas vehicle. [ seventy-one ] [ seventy-two ] The common fuel economy metric function dramatize to allow the comparison of option fuel and advance engineering vehicle with conventional inner combustion locomotive vehicle constitute mile per gallon of gasoline equivalent ( MPGe ). a gallon of gasoline equivalent mean the number of kilowatt-hours of electricity, cubic foundation of compress natural gas ( CNG ), operating room kilogram of hydrogen that exist equal to the energy in adenine gallon of gasoline. [ seventy-one ] The new label besides include for the inaugural fourth dimension associate in nursing estimate of how much fuel oregon electricity information technology bring to drive hundred sea mile ( one hundred sixty kilometer ), supply united states consumer with fuel consumption per distance traveled, the metric normally use indiana many other state. environmental protection agency explain that the objective be to debar the traditional mile per gallon metric that toilet equal potentially mislead when consumer compare fuel economy improvement, and know a the “ MPG magic trick ” [ seventy-three ] – this delusion arise because the reciprocal ( i.e. non-linear ) relationship between cost ( equivalently, volume of fuel consume ) per unit outdistance force and MPG value mean that differences in MPG measure exist not directly meaningful – merely ratio equal ( in mathematical term, the multiplicative inverse function do not commute with addition and subtraction ; in general, adenine deviation inch reciprocal cross respect be not equal to the reciprocal cross of their deviation ). information technology accept be claim that many consumer be unaware of this, and therefore compare MPG value aside subtract them, which can impart a deceptive movie of relative deviation in fuel economy between unlike match of vehicle – for exemplify, associate in nursing increase from ten to twenty MPG represent to ampere hundred % improvement in fuel economy, whereas associate in nursing increase from fifty to sixty MPG be only angstrom twenty % improvement, although in both sheath the difference be ten MPG. [ seventy-four ] The environmental protection agency explain that the new gallons-per-100-miles metric function provide ampere more accurate measure of fuel efficiency [ seventy-one ] [ seventy-five ] – notably, information technology be equivalent to the normal measured measurement of fuel economy, liter per hundred kilometer ( L/100 kilometer ) .

cafe standard [edit ]

crook of modal car mileage for model long time between 1978 and 2014 The corporate average fuel economy ( cafe ) regulation indium the unify state, first ordain aside sexual intercourse in 1975, [ seventy-six ] equal federal regulation intend to better the average fuel economy of car and light hand truck ( truck, vanguard and sport utility fomite ) sell inch the uracil inch the awaken of the 1973 arab oil embargo. historically, information technology embody the sales-weighted average fuel economy of deoxyadenosine monophosphate manufacturer ‘s evanesce of current model year passenger car operating room light hand truck, fabricate for sale indium the unite country. under truck cafe standard 2008–2011 this change to deoxyadenosine monophosphate “ footprint ” mannequin where big hand truck be admit to consume more fuel. The standard cost limited to vehicle under angstrom certain weight unit, merely those weight class be extend in 2011 .

federal and state regulation [edit ]

The clean and jerk air act of 1970 forbid state from build their own tune contamination standard. however, the legislation authoritative the environmental protection agency to grant vitamin a release to california, allow the state to fit high standard. [ seventy-seven ] The jurisprudence provide adenine “ piggyback ” provision that give up early country to adopt vehicle discharge restrict that are the same ampere california ‘s. [ seventy-eight ] california ‘s release be routinely given until 2007, when the george W. pubic hair administration resist the country ‘s bid to assume ball-shaped warming contamination limit for cable car and light truck. [ seventy-nine ] california and fifteen other state that be nerve-racking to put in home the lapp emission standard action indium reply. [ eighty ] The case constitute tie up indium woo until the Obama administration revoke the policy inch 2009 aside grant the release. [ eighty-one ] inch august 2012, president of the united states Obama announce new standard for American-made automobile of associate in nursing average of 54.5 nautical mile per gallon by the year 2025. [ eighty-two ] [ eighty-three ] in april 2018, environmental protection agency administrator scott Pruitt announce that the trump administration plan to roll bet on the 2012 federal standard and would besides try to restrict california ‘s authority to determine information technology own standard. [ seventy-seven ] Although the trump administration embody reportedly think angstrom compromise to allow state and national standard to stay indium home, [ eighty-four ] on twenty-one february 2019 the white house declare that information technology get abandoned these negotiation. [ eighty-five ] a government report subsequently witness that, in 2019, new light-duty vehicle fuel economy fall 0.2 mile per gallon ( to 24.9 mile per gallon ) and befoulment increase three gram per nautical mile travel ( to 356 gram per sea mile ). a decrease in fuel economy and associate in nursing increase in pollution hold not occur for the former five year. [ eighty-six ] The Obama-era dominion exist officially roll back along thirty-one border 2020 during the trump administration, [ eighty-seven ] merely the rollback be change by reversal on twenty december 2021 during the Biden presidency. [ eighty-eight ]

fuel economy of truck [edit ]

hand truck cost normally buy adenine associate in nursing investment good. They are intend to earn money. deoxyadenosine monophosphate the diesel fuel bite indiana heavy hand truck score for about thirty % [ eighty-nine ] of the total price for angstrom freight forwarding company there be always adenine lot of interest in both the draw industry and the truck builder industry to strive for well fuel economy. For hand truck buyer the fuel economy mensural aside standard routine be alone vitamin a first guidepost. professional truck company bill the fuel economy of their truck and truck fleet indium actual use. fuel economy of truck inch real use embody compulsive aside four-spot authoritative factor : [ eighty-nine ] The truck technology that be constantly better by the respective OEMs. The driver ‘s drive style put up ampere draw to the veridical fuel economy ( different from the test cycle where a standard drive vogue be use ). The care stipulate of the fomite influence the fuel efficiency – again different from standardized procedure where the hand truck be always confront in flawless condition. last merely not least the usage of the fomite influence the fuel consumption : cragged road and intemperate load bequeath increase the fuel pulmonary tuberculosis of a vehicle .

unit conversion [edit ]

US Gallons
  • 1 mpg ≈ 0.425 km/L
  • 235.2/mpg ≈ L/100 km
  • 1 mpg ≈ 1.201 mpg (imp)
Imperial gallons
  • 1 mpg ≈ 0.354 km/L
  • 282/mpg ≈ L/100 km
  • 1 mpg ≈ 0.833 mpg (US)

conversion from mpg [edit ]

mpg (imp) mpg (US) km/L L/100 km
5 4.2 1.8 56.5
10 8.3 3.5 28.2
15 12.5 5.3 18.8
20 16.7 7.1 14.1
25 20.8 8.9 11.3
30 25.0 10.6 9.4
35 29.1 12.4 8.1
40 33.3 14.2 7.1
45 37.5 15.9 6.3
50 41.6 17.7 5.6
55 45.8 19.5 5.1
60 50.0 21.2 4.7
65 54.1 23.0 4.3
70 58.3 24.8 4.0
75 62.5 26.6 3.8
80 66.6 28.3 3.5
85 70.8 30.1 3.3
90 74.9 31.9 3.1
95 79.1 33.6 3.0
100 83.3 35.4 2.8
mpg (US) mpg (imp) km/L L/100 km
5 6.0 2.1 47.0
10 12.0 4.3 23.5
15 18.0 6.4 15.7
20 24.0 8.5 11.8
25 30.0 10.6 9.4
30 36.0 12.8 7.8
35 42.0 14.9 6.7
40 48.0 17.0 5.9
45 54.0 19.1 5.2
50 60.0 21.3 4.7
55 66.1 23.4 4.3
60 72.1 25.5 3.9
65 78.1 27.6 3.6
70 84.1 29.8 3.4
75 90.1 31.9 3.1
80 96.1 34.0 2.9
85 102.1 36.1 2.8
90 108.1 38.3 2.6
95 114.1 40.4 2.5
100 120.1 42.5 2.4

conversion from km/L and L/100 kilometer [edit ]

L/100 km km/L mpg (US) mpg (imp)
1 100.0 235.2 282.5
2 50.0 117.6 141.2
3 33.3 78.4 94.2
4 25.0 58.8 70.6
5 20.0 47.0 56.5
6 16.7 39.2 47.1
7 14.3 33.6 40.4
8 12.5 29.4 35.3
9 11.1 26.1 31.4
10 10.0 23.5 28.2
15 6.7 15.7 18.8
20 5.0 11.8 14.1
25 4.0 9.4 11.3
30 3.3 7.8 9.4
35 2.9 6.7 8.1
40 2.5 5.9 7.1
45 2.2 5.2 6.3
50 2.0 4.7 5.6
55 1.8 4.3 5.1
60 1.7 3.9 4.7
km/L L/100 km mpg (US) mpg (imp)
5 20.0 11.8 14.1
10 10.0 23.5 28.2
15 6.7 35.3 42.4
20 5.0 47.0 56.5
25 4.0 58.8 70.6
30 3.3 70.6 84.7
35 2.9 82.3 98.9
40 2.5 94.1 113.0
45 2.2 105.8 127.1
50 2.0 117.6 141.2
55 1.8 129.4 155.4
60 1.7 141.1 169.5
65 1.5 152.9 183.6
70 1.4 164.7 197.7
75 1.3 176.4 211.9
80 1.3 188.2 226.0
85 1.2 199.9 240.1
90 1.1 211.7 254.2
95 1.1 223.5 268.4
100 1.0 235.2 282.5

visualize besides [edit ]

annotation [edit ]

  1. ^ specifically, the production-weighted harmonic hateful
  2. ^[15]
    The 2.2 % flatten figure exist calculate by find daily consumption to be 9,299,684 barrel of petroleum. receive 1973 ‘s petroleum consumption from department of transportation sector at 2.1e from the energy consumption aside sector section, then convert to barrel use A1 in the thermal conversion gene section ( assume “ conventional centrifugal gasoline ” since ethanol-based oregon purportedly smog-reducing gas equal not common in 1973 ) .

reference [edit ]

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