Rutherford Birchard Hayes ( ; October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893 ) was an american lawyer and politician who served as the 19th president of the united states of the United States from 1877 to 1881, after serving in the U.S. House of Representatives and as governor of Ohio. Before the American Civil War, Hayes was a lawyer and steadfast abolitionist who defended refugee slaves in court proceedings. He served in the Union Army and the House of Representatives before assuming the presidency. [ 1 ] His presidency represents a turning degree in U.S. history, as historians consider it the formal end of Reconstruction. Hayes, a outstanding member of the republican “ half-blooded “ cabal, [ 2 ] placated both Southern Democrats and Whiggish Republican businessmen by ending the federal government ‘s involvement in attempting to bring racial equality in the South. [ 3 ] [ 4 ] As an lawyer in Ohio, Hayes served as Cincinnati ‘s city solicitor from 1858 to 1861. At the depart of the American Civil War, he left a fledgling political career to join the Union Army as an military officer. Hayes was wounded five times, most badly at the Battle of South Mountain in 1862. He earned a reputation for fearlessness in battle and was promoted to brevet major general. After the war, he served in Congress from 1865 to 1867 as a Republican. Hayes left Congress to run for governor of Ohio and was elected to two back-to-back terms, from 1868 to 1872. He served half of a third biennial term from 1876 to 1877 before his swearing-in as president.
Reading: Rutherford B. Hayes – Wikipedia
In 1877, Hayes assumed the presidency following the 1876 United States presidential election, one of the most contentious in U.S. history. Hayes lost the popular vote to Democrat Samuel J. Tilden, and neither candidate secured adequate electoral votes. According to the U.S. Constitution, if no candidate wins the Electoral College, the House of Representatives is tasked with selecting the new president. Hayes secured a victory when a congressional Commission awarded him 20 contested electoral votes in the compromise of 1877. The electoral quarrel was resolved with a backroom deal whereby the southerly Democrats acquiesced to Hayes ‘s election on the condition that he end both federal defend for Reconstruction and the military occupation in the erstwhile Confederate States. Hayes ‘s presidency was influenced by his belief in meritocratic government and in equal treatment without gaze to wealth, social stand, or raceway. One of the defining events of his presidency was the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, which he resolved by calling in the US Army against the railway workers. It remains the deadliest battle between workers and strikebreakers in american history. As president, Hayes implemented modest civil-service reforms that laid the groundwork for far reform in the 1880s and 1890s. He vetoed the Bland–Allison Act of 1878, which put silver money into circulation and raised nominal prices ; Hayes saw the maintenance of the aureate standard as all-important to economic recovery. His policy toward westerly Indians anticipated the assimilationist program of the Dawes Act of 1887. At the conclusion of his term, Hayes kept his assurance not to run for reelection and retired to his home in Ohio. He became an preach of social and educational reform. Biographer Ari Hoogenboom has written that Hayes ‘s greatest accomplishment was to restore democratic religion in the presidency and to reverse the deterioration of executive baron that had established itself after the assassination of Abraham Lincoln in 1865. His supporters have praised his committedness to civil-service reform ; his critics have derided his lenience toward former Confederate states arsenic well as his withdrawal of federal confirm for african Americans ‘ vote and civil rights. [ 5 ] Historians and scholars broadly rank Hayes as an average to below-average president. [ 6 ] [ 7 ]
family and early animation [edit ]
childhood and family history [edit ]
Rutherford Birchard Hayes was born in Delaware, Ohio, on October 4, 1822, to Rutherford Hayes, Jr. and Sophia Birchard. Hayes ‘s father, a Vermont shopkeeper, had taken the family to Ohio in 1817. He died ten-spot weeks before Rutherford ‘s birth. Sophia took consign of the family, raising Hayes and his baby, Fanny, the only two of the four children to survive to adulthood. She never remarried, and Sophia ‘s younger brother, Sardis Birchard, lived with the family for a time. He was always close to Hayes and became a beget trope to him, contributing to his early education. Through each of his parents, Hayes was descended from New England colonists. His earliest immigrant ancestor came to Connecticut from Scotland in 1625. Hayes ‘s great-grandfather Ezekiel Hayes was a militia captain in Connecticut in the american Revolutionary War, but Ezekiel ‘s son ( Hayes ‘s grandfather, besides named Rutherford ) left his Branford home during the war for the relative peace of Vermont. His mother ‘s ancestors migrated to Vermont at a alike time. Hayes wrote : “ I have always thought of myself as Scotch, but of the fathers of my syndicate who came to America about thirty were english and two lone, Hayes and Rutherford, were of Scotch origin. This, on my father ‘s side. On my mother ‘s side, the solid thirty-two were credibly all of other peoples beside the Scotch. ” [ 15 ] Most of his close relatives outside Ohio continued to live there. John Noyes, an uncle by marriage, had been his forefather ‘s occupation spouse in Vermont and was by and by elected to Congress. His first cousin, Mary Jane Mead, was the mother of sculptor Larkin Goldsmith Mead and architect William Rutherford Mead. John Humphrey Noyes, the collapse of the Oneida Community, was besides a first cousin .
education and early law career [edit ]
Hayes attended the common schools in Delaware, Ohio, and enrolled in 1836 at the Methodist Norwalk Seminary in Norwalk, Ohio. He did well at Norwalk, and the adjacent year transferred to the Webb School, a preparatory school in Middletown, Connecticut, where he studied Latin and Ancient Greek. Returning to Ohio, he attended Kenyon College in Gambier in 1838. He enjoyed his prison term at Kenyon, and was successful scholastically ; while there, he joined respective scholar societies and became concerned in Whig politics. His classmates included Stanley Matthews and John Celivergos Zachos. [ 22 ] He graduated Phi Beta Kappa and with highest honors in 1842 and addressed the class as its valedictorian. After briefly reading jurisprudence in Columbus, Ohio, Hayes moved east to attend Harvard Law School in 1843. Graduating with an LL.B, he was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1845 and opened his own law office in Lower Sandusky ( now Fremont ). Business was slow at first base, but he gradually attracted clients and besides represented his uncle Sardis in real estate of the realm litigation. In 1847 Hayes became ill with what his sophisticate thought was tuberculosis. Thinking a change in climate would help, he considered enlisting in the Mexican–American War, but on his sophisticate ‘s advice alternatively visited family in New England. Returning from there, Hayes and his uncle Sardis made a long travel to Texas, where Hayes visited with Guy M. Bryan, a Kenyon schoolmate and distant relative. Business remained meager on his return to Lower Sandusky, and Hayes decided to move to Cincinnati .
Cincinnati law practice and marriage [edit ]
Rutherford and Lucy Hayes on their marry day Hayes moved to Cincinnati in 1850, and opened a law agency with John W. Herron, a lawyer from Chillicothe. [ a ] Herron by and by joined a more prove tauten and Hayes formed a new partnership with William K. Rogers and Richard M. Corwine. He found commercial enterprise better in Cincinnati, and enjoyed its social attractions, joining the Cincinnati Literary Society and the Odd Fellows Club. He besides attended the Episcopal Church in Cincinnati but did not become a member. Hayes courted his future wife, Lucy Webb, during his fourth dimension there. His mother had encouraged him to get to know Lucy years early, but Hayes had believed she was excessively young and focused his attention on other women. Four years late, Hayes began to spend more time with Lucy. They became engaged in 1851 and married on December 30, 1852, at Lucy ‘s mother ‘s house. Over the following five years, Lucy gave parturition to three sons : Birchard Austin ( 1853 ), Webb Cook ( 1856 ), and Rutherford Platt ( 1858 ). A methodist, Lucy was a teetotaler and abolitionist. She influenced her husband ‘s views on those issues, though he never formally joined her church. Hayes had begun his law practice dealing primarily with commercial issues but won greater prominence in Cincinnati as a criminal defense lawyer, defending several people accused of murder. In one event, he used a form of the insanity defense mechanism that saved the accused from the gallows ; she was rather confined to a mental initiation. Hayes besides defended slaves who had escaped and been accused under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. As Cincinnati was good across the Ohio River from Kentucky, a slave country, it was a destination for escaping slaves and many such cases were tried in its courts. A stem abolitionist, Hayes found his knead on behalf of fleeting slaves personally gratifying ampere well as politically utilitarian, as it raised his profile in the newly formed Republican Party. His political repute rose with his master plaudits. Hayes declined a republican nomination for a judgeship in 1856. Two years later, some Republicans proposed Hayes to fill a void on the bench and he considered accepting the date until the agency of city solicitor besides became vacant. The city council elected Hayes city solicitor to fill the vacancy, and voters elected him to a full biennial term in April 1859 with a larger majority than other Republicans on the slate .
Civil War [edit ]
Hayes in Civil War consistent in 1861
West Virginia and South Mountain [edit ]
As the Southern states promptly began to secede after Lincoln ‘s election to the presidency in 1860, Hayes was lukewarm about civil war to restore the Union. Considering that the two sides might be irreconcilable, he suggested that the Union “ [ l ] et them go. ” Though Ohio had voted for Lincoln in 1860, Cincinnati voters turned against the Republican party after secession. Its residents included many from the South, and they voted for the Democrats and Know-Nothings, who combined to sweep the city elections in April 1861, ejecting Hayes from the city solicitor ‘s agency. Returning to secret drill, Hayes formed a very brief law partnership with Leopold Markbreit, lasting three days before the war began. After the Confederates fired on Fort Sumter, Hayes resolved his doubts and joined a volunteer company composed of his literary Society friends. That June, Governor William Dennison appointed several of the officers of the volunteer company to positions in the 23rd Regiment of Ohio Volunteer Infantry. Hayes was promoted to major, and his ally and college schoolmate Stanley Matthews was appointed lieutenant colonel. Joining the regiment as a private was another future president of the united states, William McKinley. After a calendar month of train, Hayes and the 23rd Ohio set out for westerly Virginia in July 1861 as a part of the Kanawha Division. They did not meet the enemy until September, when the regiment encountered Confederates at Carnifex Ferry in contemporary West Virginia and drove them back. In November, Hayes was promoted to lieutenant colonel ( Matthews having been promoted to colonel of another regiment ) and led his troops deeper into westerly Virginia, where they entered winter quarters. The division resumed its advance the be spring, and Hayes led several raids against the rebel forces, on one of which he sustained a minor wound to his knee. That September, Hayes ‘s regiment was called east to reinforce General John Pope ‘s Army of Virginia at the second base Battle of Bull Run. Hayes and his troops did not arrive in prison term for the battle, but joined the Army of the Potomac as it hurried north to cut off Robert E. Lee ‘s Army of Northern Virginia, which was advancing into Maryland. Marching north, the 23rd was the contribute regiment encountering the Confederates at the Battle of South Mountain on September 14. Hayes led a charge against an entrenched side and was shot through his left sleeve, fracturing the cram. He had one of his men tie a handkerchief above the wind in an effort to stop the bleed, and continued to lead his men in the conflict. While resting, he ordered his men to meet a flank assail, but rather his integral control moved backward, leaving Hayes lying in between the lines. finally, his men brought Hayes second behind their lines, and he was taken to hospital. The regiment continued on to Antietam, but Hayes was out of carry through for the remainder of the campaign. In October, he was promoted to colonel and assigned to command of the first brigade of the Kanawha Division as a brevet brigadier general .
Army of the Shenandoah [edit ]
George Crook was Hayes’s commander and the namesake of his fourth son The division spent the follow winter and form near Charleston, Virginia ( contemporary West Virginia ), out of contact with the enemy. Hayes saw short action until July 1863, when the division skirmished with John Hunt Morgan ‘s cavalry at the Battle of Buffington Island. Returning to Charleston for the pillow of the summer, Hayes spent the fall encouraging the men of the 23rd Ohio to reenlist, and many did. In 1864, the Army dominate structure in West Virginia was reorganized, and Hayes ‘s division was assigned to George Crook ‘s Army of West Virginia. Advancing into southwest Virginia, they destroyed Confederate salt and lead mines there. On May 9, they engaged Confederate troops at Cloyd ‘s Mountain, where Hayes and his men charged the enemy entrenchments and drove the rebels from the discipline. Following the rout, the Union forces destroyed Confederate supplies and again successfully skirmished with the enemy. Hayes and his brigade moved to the Shenandoah Valley for the Valley Campaigns of 1864. Crook ‘s corps was attached to Major General David Hunter ‘s Army of the Shenandoah and soon back in contact with Confederate forces, capturing Lexington, Virginia on June 11. They continued south toward Lynchburg, tearing up railroad track as they advanced, but Hunter believed the troops at Lynchburg were excessively herculean, and Hayes and his brigade returned to West Virginia. Hayes thought Hunter lacked aggression, writing in a letter home that “ General Crook would have taken Lynchburg. ” Before the army could make another undertake, Confederate General Jubal Early ‘s raid into Maryland forced their recall to the north. Early ‘s army surprised them at Kernstown on July 24, where Hayes was slenderly wounded by a bullet train to the shoulder. He besides had a horse shot out from under him, and the army was defeated. Retreating to Maryland, the army was reorganized again, with Major General Philip Sheridan replacing Hunter. By August, Early was retreating up the valley, with Sheridan in avocation. Hayes ‘s troops fended off a Confederate assault at Berryville and advanced to Opequon Creek, where they broke the foe lines and pursued them farther south. They followed up the victory with another at Fisher ‘s Hill on September 22, and one more at Cedar Creek on October 19. At Cedar Creek, Hayes sprained his ankle after being thrown from a horse and was struck in the head by a exhausted round, which did not cause dangerous price. His leadership and courage drew his superiors ‘ attention, with Ulysses S. Grant later spell of Hayes, “ [ hydrogen ] is conduct on the battlefield was marked by blatant chivalry american samoa well as the display of qualities of a higher order than that of mere personal defy. ” Cedar Creek marked the end of the campaign. Hayes was promoted to brigadier general in October 1864 and brevetted major general. Around this clock, Hayes learned of the birth of his fourth son, George Crook Hayes. The army went into winter quarters once more, and in spring 1865 the war cursorily came to a close up with Lee ‘s surrender to Grant at Appomattox. Hayes visited Washington, D.C. that May and observed the Grand Review of the Armies, after which he and the 23rd Ohio returned to their home country to be mustered out of the military service .
Post-war politics [edit ]
U.S. Representative from Ohio [edit ]
While serving in the Army of the Shenandoah in 1864, Hayes was nominated by Republicans for the House of Representatives from Ohio ‘s second congressional zone. Asked by friends in Cincinnati to leave the army to campaign, he refused, saying that an “ officer fit for duty who at this crisis would abandon his post to electioneer for a seat in Congress ought to be scalped. ” alternatively, Hayes wrote several letters to the voters explaining his political positions and was elected by a 2,400-vote majority over the incumbent, Democrat Alexander Long. When the 39th Congress assembled in December 1865, Hayes was sworn in as a separate of a big Republican majority. Hayes identified with the party ‘s moderate wing, but was uncoerced to vote with the radicals for the sake of party oneness. The major legislative effort of the Congress was the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, for which Hayes voted and which passed both houses of Congress in June 1866. Hayes ‘s beliefs were in line with his mate Republicans on Reconstruction issues : that the South should be restored to the Union, but not without adequate protections for freedmen and early black southerners. President Andrew Johnson, who succeeded to function following Lincoln ‘s assassination, to the contrary wanted to readmit the secede states quickly without first ensuring that they adopted laws protecting the newly freed slaves ‘ civil rights ; he besides granted pardons to many of the leading early Confederates. Hayes, along with congressional Republicans, disagree. They worked to reject Johnson ‘s vision of Reconstruction and to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1866. Reelected in 1866, Hayes returned to the lame-duck session. On January 7, 1867, he voted for the settlement that authorized the first impeachment question against Andrew Johnson. [ 76 ] He besides voted during this time for the Tenure of Office Act, which ensured that Johnson could not remove government officials without the Senate ‘s consent, and unsuccessfully pressed for a civil service reform circular that attracted the votes of many progressive Republicans. Hayes continued to vote with the majority in the fortieth Congress on the Reconstruction Acts, but resigned in July 1867 to run for governor of Ohio .
Governor of Ohio [edit ]
A popular Congressman and former Army policeman, Hayes was considered by Ohio Republicans to be an excellent standard-bearer for the 1867 election campaign. His political views were more chasten than the Republican party ‘s platform, although he agreed with the proposed amendment to the Ohio state of matter fundamental law that would guarantee right to vote to black male Ohioans. Hayes ‘s opponent, Allen G. Thurman, made the proposed amendment the centerpiece of the political campaign and fight black right to vote. Both men campaigned vigorously, making speeches across the country, largely focusing on the right to vote interrogate. The election was by and large a disappointment to Republicans, as the amendment failed to pass and Democrats gained a majority in the country legislature. Hayes thought at first that he, excessively, had lost, but the final examination score showed that he had won the election by 2,983 votes of 484,603 votes cast. As a republican governor with a democratic legislature, Hayes had a limited role in governing, particularly since Ohio ‘s governor had no veto power. Despite these constraints, he oversaw the establishment of a school for deaf-mutes and a reform school for girls. He endorsed the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson and urged his conviction, which failed by one vote in the United States Senate. Nominated for a second term in 1869, Hayes campaigned again for equal rights for black Ohioans and sought to associate his democratic adversary, George H. Pendleton, with disunion and Confederate sympathies. Hayes was reelected with an increased majority, and the Republicans took the legislature, ensuring Ohio ‘s ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guaranteed black ( male ) right to vote. With a republican legislature, Hayes ‘s second condition was more enjoyable. right to vote was expanded and a express Agricultural and Mechanical College ( late to become The Ohio State University ) established. He besides proposed a reduction in state taxes and reform of the state prison system. Choosing not to seek reelection, Hayes looked forward to retiring from politics in 1872 .
secret animation and render to politics [edit ]
As Hayes prepared to leave agency, respective delegations of progressive Republicans urged him to run for United States Senate against the incumbent Republican, John Sherman. Hayes declined, preferring to preserve party one and retire to private life. He particularly looked ahead to spend time with his children, two of whom ( daughter Fanny and son Scott ) had been born in the past five years. [ boron ] Initially, Hayes tried to promote railroad track extensions to his hometown, Fremont. He besides managed some veridical estate he had acquired in Duluth, Minnesota. not wholly removed from politics, Hayes held out some hope of a cabinet appointment, but was disappointed to receive only an appointment as adjunct U.S. treasurer at Cincinnati, which he turned down. He agreed to be nominated for his old House seat in 1872 but was not disappoint when he lost the election to Henry B. Banning, a companion Kenyon College alumnus. In 1873, Lucy gave birth to another son, Manning Force Hayes. [ c ] That lapp year, the Panic of 1873 ache business prospects across the nation, including Hayes ‘s. His uncle Sardis Birchard died that class, and the Hayes family moved into Spiegel Grove, the fantastic house Birchard had built with them in mind. That class Hayes announced his uncle ‘s bequest of $ 50,000 in assets to endow a public library for Fremont, to be called the Birchard Library. It opened in 1874 on Front Street, and a fresh build was completed and opened in 1878 in Fort Stephenson State Park. ( This site was per the terms of the bequest. ) Hayes served as chair of the library ‘s board of trustees until his death. [ 96 ] Hayes hoped to stay out of politics in orderliness to pay off the debt he had incurred during the Panic, but when the Republican state of matter convention nominated him for governor in 1875, he accepted. His campaign against democratic campaigner William Allen focused primarily on Protestant fears about the possibility of state aid to Catholic schools. Hayes was against such fund and, while not known to be personally anti-Catholic, he allowed anti-Catholic excitement to contribute to the enthusiasm for his campaigning. The campaign was a success, and on October 12, 1875 Hayes was returned to the governorship by a 5,544-vote majority. The first person to earn a third gear term as governor of Ohio, Hayes reduced the state debt, reestablished the Board of Charities, and repealed the Geghan Bill, which had allowed for the appointment of catholic priests to schools and penitentiaries .
election of 1876 [edit ]
republican nomination and political campaign against Tilden [edit ]
Original Currier & Ives campaign post horse depicting the Hayes-Wheeler ticket, the last and rarest in the firm ‘s “ Grand National Banner ” series Hayes ‘s achiever in Ohio immediately elevated him to the top ranks of republican politicians under circumstance for the presidency in 1876. The Ohio delegating to the 1876 Republican National Convention was united behind him, and Senator John Sherman did all in his office to get Hayes the nomination. In June 1876, the convention assembled with James G. Blaine of Maine as the favorite. Blaine started with a significant precede in the delegate count, but could not muster a majority. As he failed to gain votes, the delegates looked elsewhere for a campaigner and settled on Hayes on the seventh ballot. The convention selected Representative William A. Wheeler from New York for frailty president, a man about whom Hayes had recently asked, “ I am ashamed to say : who is Wheeler ? ” The campaign scheme of Hayes and Wheeler emphasized conciliatory appeals to the Southern Whiggish element, attempting to “ detach ” honest-to-god southerly Whigs from Southern Democrats. [ 105 ] When Frederick Douglass asked whether the Republican Party would continue its devotion to protecting black civil rights or “ get along without the vote of the black man in the South ”, Hayes and Wheeler advocated the latter. The democratic campaigner was Samuel J. Tilden, the governor of New York. Tilden was considered a formidable adversary who, like Hayes, had a repute for honesty. besides like Hayes, Tilden was a hard-money man and supported civil service reform. In accordance with the custom-made of the time, the crusade was conducted by surrogates, with Hayes and Tilden remaining in their respective hometowns. The poor economic conditions made the party in might unpopular and made Hayes defendant he would lose the election. Both candidates concentrated on the swing states of New York and Indiana, arsenic well as the three southerly states— Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida —where Reconstruction Republican governments still scantily ruled, amid recurring political violence, including widespread efforts to suppress freedman vote. The Republicans emphasized the danger of letting Democrats run the state so soon after southern Democrats had provoked the Civil War and, to a lesser extent, the danger a democratic government would pose to the recently won civil rights of southerly blacks. Democrats, for their character, trumpeted Tilden ‘s criminal record of reform and contrasted it with the corruption of the incumbent Grant administration. As the returns were tallied on election day, it was clear that the race was close : Democrats had carried most of the South, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as New York, Indiana, Connecticut, and New Jersey. In the Northeast, an increasing number of immigrants and their descendants voted democratic. Although Tilden won the popular right to vote and claimed 184 electoral votes, republican leaders challenged the results and charged Democrats with fraud and voter inhibition of blacks ( who would differently have voted Republican ) in Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina. Republicans realized that if they held the three disputed cursed southerly states together with some of the western states, they would emerge with an electoral college majority .
Disputed electoral votes [edit ]
On November 11, three days after election sidereal day, Tilden appeared to have won 184 electoral votes, one curtly of a majority. Hayes appeared to have 166, with the 19 votes of Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina placid in doubt. Republicans and Democrats each claimed victory in the three latter states, but the results in those states were rendered uncertain because of imposter by both parties. To foster complicate matters, one of the three electors from Oregon ( a country Hayes had won ) was disqualified, reducing Hayes ‘s total to 165, and raising the quarrel votes to 20. [ vitamin d ] If Hayes was not awarded all 20 disputed votes, Tilden would be elected president .
red, and those won by Tilden in blue Results of the 1876 election, with states won by Hayes in, and those won by Tilden in There was considerable argument about which person or house of Congress was authorized to decide between the competing slates of electors, with the Republican Senate and the democratic House each claiming priority. By January 1877, with the wonder calm unresolved, Congress and President Grant agreed to submit the matter to a bipartisan electoral Commission, which would be authorized to determine the fortune of the challenge electoral votes. The Commission was to be made up of five representatives, five senators, and five Supreme Court justices. To ensure partisan balance, there would be seven Democrats and seven Republicans, with Justice David Davis, an independent respected by both parties, as the fifteenth extremity. The counterweight was upset when Democrats in the Illinois legislature elected Davis to the Senate, hoping to sway his right to vote. Davis disappointed Democrats by refusing to serve on the Commission because of his election to the Senate. As all the remaining Justices were Republicans, Justice Joseph P. Bradley, believed to be the most independent-minded of them, was selected to take Davis ‘s invest on the Commission. The Commission met in February and the eight Republicans voted to award all 20 electoral votes to Hayes. Democrats, outraged by the solution, attempted a filibuster to prevent Congress from accepting the Commission ‘s findings. finally, the filibusterers gave up, allowing the House to reject the protest in the early hours of March 2. The House and Senate then reassembled to complete the count of the electoral votes. At 4:10 am on March 2, Senator Thomas Ferry announced that Hayes and Wheeler had been elected to the presidency and vice presidency, by an electoral allowance of 185–184. [ 126 ] As inauguration day neared, Republican and democratic Congressional leaders met at Wormley ‘s Hotel in Washington to negotiate a compromise. Republicans promise concessions in commute for democratic assent to the Committee ‘s decision. The independent concession Hayes promised was the withdrawal of federal troops from the South and an acceptance of the election of democratic governments in the remaining “ cursed ” southerly states. The Democrats agreed, and on March 2, the filibuster was ended. Hayes was elected, but Reconstruction was finished, and freedmen were left at the mercy of white Democrats who did not intend to preserve their rights. On April 3, Hayes ordered Secretary of War George W. McCrary to withdraw federal troops stationed at the South Carolina State House to their barracks. On April 20, he ordered McCrary to send the federal troops stationed at New Orleans ‘s St. Louis Hotel to Jackson Barracks .
Presidency ( 1877–1881 ) [edit ]
inauguration [edit ]
Because March 4, 1877, was a Sunday, Hayes took the curse of office privately on Saturday, March 3, in the Red Room of the White House, the beginning president of the united states to do therefore in the Executive Mansion. He took the oath publicly on March 5 on the East Portico of the United States Capitol. In his inaugural address, Hayes attempted to soothe the passions of the past few months, saying that “ he serves his party best who serves his country best ”. He pledged to support “ judicious, honest, and passive local anesthetic self-government ” in the South, a well as reform of the civil military service and a broad return key to the gold standard. Despite his message of placation, many Democrats never considered Hayes ‘s election legitimate and referred to him as “ Rutherfraud ” or “ His Fraudulency ” for the adjacent four years .
The South and the end of reconstruction [edit ]
Hayes had securely supported republican Reconstruction policies throughout his career, but the first base major act of his presidency was an end to Reconstruction and the render of the South to “ home rule ”. evening without the conditions of the Wormley ‘s Hotel agreement, Hayes would have been distressed to continue his predecessors ‘ policies. The House of Representatives in the forty-fifth Congress was controlled by a majority of Democrats, and they refused to appropriate enough funds for the army to continue to garrison the South. even among Republicans, devotion to continued military reconstruction was fading in the face of dogged Southern insurgency and ferocity. only two states were inactive under Reconstruction ‘s sway when Hayes assumed the presidency and, without troops to enforce the vote rights laws, these soon fell to Democratic control. [ e ] Hayes ‘s late attempts to protect the rights of southern blacks were ineffective, as were his attempts to rebuild republican forte in the South. He did, however, defeat Congress ‘s efforts to curtail federal power to monitor union elections. Democrats in Congress passed an army appropriation bill in 1879 with a rider that repealed the Enforcement Acts, which had been used to suppress the Ku Klux Klan. Chapters had flourished across the South and it had been one of the insurgent groups that attacked and suppressed freedmen. Those Acts, passed during Reconstruction, made it a crime to prevent person from voting because of his rush. other paramilitary groups, such as the Red Shirts in the Carolinas, however, had intimidated freedmen and suppressed the vote. Hayes was determined to preserve the law protecting black voters, and vetoed the appropriation. The Democrats did not have enough votes to override the veto, but they passed a raw bill with the same rider. Hayes vetoed that placard excessively, and the process was repeated three times more. last, Hayes signed an annexation without the offensive rider, but Congress refused to pass another bill to fund federal marshals, who were vital to the enforcement of the Enforcement Acts. The election laws remained in effect, but the funds to enforce them were curtailed for the time being. Hayes tried to reconcile the social mores of the South with the recently passed civil rights laws by distributing patronize among southerly Democrats. “ My tax was to wipe out the color line, to abolish sectionalism, to end the war and bring peace, ” he wrote in his diary. “ To do this, I was ready to resort to strange measures and to risk my own standing and reputation within my party and the nation. ” All his efforts were in bootless ; Hayes failed to persuade the South to accept legal racial equality or to convince Congress to appropriate funds to enforce the civil rights laws .
Civil service reform [edit ]
Hayes took office determined to reform the system of civil serve appointments, which had been based on the spoils system since Andrew Jackson ‘s presidency. [ f ] rather of giving federal jobs to political supporters, Hayes wished to award them by deserve according to an examination that all applicants would take. Hayes ‘s bid for reform immediately brought him into dispute with the Stalwart, or pro-spoils, branch of the Republican party. Senators of both parties were accustomed to being consulted about political appointments and turned against Hayes. Foremost among his enemies was New York Senator Roscoe Conkling, who fought Hayes ‘s reform efforts at every turn. To show his commitment to reform, Hayes appointed one of the best-known advocates of reform, Carl Schurz, to be Secretary of the Interior and asked Schurz and Secretary of State William M. Evarts to lead a special cabinet committee charged with drawing up raw rules for union appointments. Treasury Secretary John Sherman ordered John Jay to investigate the New York Custom House, which was stacked with Conkling ‘s spoilsmen. Jay ‘s report suggested that the New York Custom House was then overstaffed with political appointees that 20 % of the employees were expendable .
A cartoon of Hayes kicking Chester A. Arthur out of the New York Custom House
Although he could not convince Congress to prohibit the spoils system, Hayes issued an administrator order that forbade federal office holders from being required to make campaign contributions or differently taking part in party politics. Chester A. Arthur, the Collector of the Port of New York, and his subordinates Alonzo B. Cornell and George H. Sharpe, all Conkling supporters, refused to obey the order. In September 1877, Hayes demanded their resignations, which they refused to give. He submitted appointments of Theodore Roosevelt, Sr., L. Bradford Prince, and Edwin Merritt —all supporters of Evarts, Conkling ‘s New York rival—to the Senate for confirmation as their replacements. The Senate ‘s Commerce Committee, chaired by Conkling, voted unanimously to reject the nominees. The full Senate rejected Roosevelt and Prince by a vote of 31–25, and confirmed Merritt alone because Sharpe ‘s term had expired. Hayes was forced to wait until July 1878, when he fired Arthur and Cornell during a Congressional respite and replaced them with recess appointments of Merritt and Silas W. Burt, respectively. [ deoxyguanosine monophosphate ] Conkling opposed confirmation of the appointees when the Senate reconvened in February 1879, but Merritt was approved by a vote of 31–25 and Burt by 31–19, giving Hayes his most significant civil servicing reform victory. For the end of his term, Hayes pressed Congress to enact permanent reform legislation and fund the United States Civil Service Commission, even using his last annual message to Congress in 1880 to appeal for reform. Reform legislation did not pass during Hayes ‘s presidency, but his advocacy provided “ a significant precedent arsenic well as the political impulse for the Pendleton Act of 1883, ” which was signed into law by President Chester Arthur. Hayes allowed some exceptions to the ban on assessments, permitting George Congdon Gorham, secretary of the Republican Congressional Committee, to solicit campaign contributions from federal officeholders during the congressional elections of 1878. In 1880, Hayes promptly forced Secretary of the Navy Richard W. Thompson to resign after Thompson accepted a $ 25,000 wage for a nominal job offered by french engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps to promote a french canal in Panama. Hayes besides dealt with corruptness in the postal service. In 1880, Schurz and Senator John A. Logan asked Hayes to shut down the “ star road “ rings, a system of bribe contract profiteering in the Postal Service, and to fire Second Assistant Postmaster-General Thomas J. Brady, the alleged ringleader. Hayes stopped granting new star route contracts but let existing contracts continue to be enforced. Democrats accused him of delaying proper investigation so as not to damage Republicans ‘ chances in the 1880 elections but did not press the write out in their campaign literature, as members of both parties were implicated in the corruption. historian Hans L. Trefousse late wrote that Hayes “ hardly knew the headman suspect [ Brady ] and surely had no connection with the [ star topology path ] corruptness. ” Although Hayes and the Congress both investigated the contracts and found no compelling evidence of error, Brady and others were indicted for conspiracy in 1882. After two trials, the defendants were acquitted in 1883 .
Great Railroad rap [edit ]
burn of Union Depot, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, July 21–22, 1877 In his first year in position, Hayes was faced with the United States ‘ largest british labour party uprising to date, the Great Railroad Strike of 1877. To make up for fiscal losses suffered since the panic of 1873, the major railroads had cut their employees ‘ wages respective times in 1877. In July of that year, workers at the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad walked off the job in Martinsburg, West Virginia, to protest their decrease in pay. The fall cursorily spread to workers of the New York Central, Erie, and Pennsylvania railroads, with the strikers soon numbering in the thousands. Fearing a carouse, Governor Henry M. Mathews asked Hayes to send federal troops to Martinsburg, and Hayes did so, but when the troops arrived there was no orgy, merely a peaceful protest. In Baltimore, however, a belly laugh did erupt on July 20, and Hayes ordered the troops at Fort McHenry to assist the governor in suppressing it. Pittsburgh exploded into riots next, but Hayes was reluctant to send in troops without the governor ‘s request. other discontented citizens joined the railroad workers in carouse. After a few days, Hayes resolved to send in troops to protect union property wherever it appeared to be threatened and gave Major General Winfield Scott Hancock overall command of the position, marking the first use of federal troops to break a strike against a secret company. The riots spread foster, to Chicago and St. Louis, where strikers shut down railway facilities. By July 29, the riots had ended and union troops returned to their barracks. No union troops had killed any of the strikers, or been killed themselves, but clashes between state militia troops and strikers resulted in deaths on both sides. The railroads were triumphant in the light term, as the workers returned to their jobs and some engage cuts remained in effect. But the public blamed the railroads for the strikes and ferocity, and they were compelled to improve working conditions and make no further cuts. business leaders praised Hayes, but his own opinion was more equivocal ; as he recorded in his diary :
“ The strikes have been put down by force; but now for the real remedy. Ca n’t something [ be ] done by education of strikers, by judicious control of capitalists, by judicious general policy to end or diminish the evil ? The railroad track strikers, as a govern, are good men, grave, healthy, and hardworking. ”
currentness debate [edit ]
Treasury Secretary John Sherman worked with Hayes to return the country to the gold criterion. Hayes confronted two issues regarding the currency, the first of which was the neologism of flatware, and its relation to amber. In 1873, the Coinage Act of 1873 stopped the neologism of silver for all coins worth a dollar or more, efficaciously tying the dollar to the value of aureate. As a consequence, the money provision contracted and the effects of the Panic of 1873 grew worse, making it more expensive for debtors to pay debts they had contracted when currentness was less valuable. Farmers and laborers, specially, clamored for the return of neologism in both metals, believing the increased money issue would restore wages and property values. democratic Representative Richard P. Bland of Missouri proposed a bill to require the United States to coin vitamin a much silver as miners could sell the government, frankincense increasing the money issue and aiding debtors. William B. Allison, a republican from Iowa, offered an amendment in the Senate limiting the neologism to two to four million dollars per calendar month, and the resulting Bland–Allison Act passed both houses of Congress in 1878. Hayes feared the Act would cause inflation that would be catastrophic to occupation, efficaciously impairing contracts that were based on the amber dollar, as the argent dollar proposed in the bill would have an intrinsic value of 90 to 92 percentage of the existing gold dollar. He besides believed that inflating the currentness was dishonest, saying, “ [ east ] xpediency and justice both demand an honest currentness. ” He vetoed the poster, but Congress overrode his veto, the only fourth dimension it did sol during his presidency. The second write out concerned United States Notes ( normally called greenbacks ), a shape of decree currency beginning issued during the Civil War. The government accepted these notes as valid for payment of taxes and tariffs, but unlike ordinary dollars, they were not redeemable in gold. The Specie Payment Resumption Act of 1875 required the treasury to redeem any outstanding greenbacks in aureate, frankincense retiring them from circulation and restoring a single, gold-backed currentness. Sherman agreed with Hayes ‘s favorable public opinion of the Act, and stockpiled gold in formulation for the exchange of greenbacks for gold. But once the public was confident that they could redeem greenbacks for coinage ( gold ), few did indeed ; when the Act took effect in 1879, only $ 130,000 of the outstanding $ 346,000,000 in greenbacks were actually redeemed. together with the Bland–Allison Act, the successful coinage resumption effected a feasible compromise between inflationists and hard money men and, as the global economy began to improve, agitation for more greenbacks and silver neologism quieted down for the stay of Hayes ‘s presidency .
alien policy [edit ]
A political cartoon from 1882, criticizing chinese excommunication Most of Hayes ‘s foreign-policy concerns involved Latin America. In 1878, following the Paraguayan War, he arbitrated a territorial challenge between Argentina and Paraguay. Hayes awarded the quarrel land in the Gran Chaco region to Paraguay, and the Paraguayans honored him by renaming a city ( Villa Hayes ) and a department ( Presidente Hayes ) in his honor. Hayes became implicated over the plans of Ferdinand de Lesseps, the builder of the Suez Canal, to construct a canal across the Isthmus of Panama, then part of Colombia. Worried about a repetition of french adventurism in Mexico, Hayes interpreted the Monroe Doctrine securely. In a message to Congress, Hayes explained his opinion on the canal : “ The policy of this area is a duct under american english control … The United States can not consent to the resignation of this control to any european power or any combination of european powers. ” The Mexican boundary line besides drew Hayes ‘s attention. Throughout the 1870s, “ lawless bands ” often crossed the border on raids into Texas. Three months after taking office, Hayes granted the Army the office to pursue bandits, tied if it required crossing into Mexican territory. Mexican president Porfirio Díaz protested the arrange and sent troops to the molding. The site calmed as Díaz and Hayes agreed to jointly pursue bandits and Hayes agreed not to allow mexican revolutionaries to raise armies in the United States. The violence along the surround decreased, and in 1880 Hayes revoked the order allowing avocation into Mexico. Outside the Western hemisphere, Hayes ‘s biggest foreign-policy business cope with China. In 1868 the Senate had ratified the Burlingame Treaty with China, allowing an unexclusive flow of chinese immigrants into the United States. As the economy soured after the Panic of 1873, chinese immigrants were blamed in the american West for depressing workmen ‘s wages. During the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, anti-Chinese riots broke out in San Francisco, and a third base party, the Workingman ‘s Party, formed with an emphasis on stopping chinese immigration. In response, Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1879, abrogating the 1868 treaty. Hayes vetoed the bill, believing that the United States should not abrogate treaties without negotiation. The veto drew praise from Northeastern New England Republicans, but Hayes was bitterly denounced in the West. In the subsequent fad, Democrats in the House of Representatives attempted to impeach him, but narrowly failed when Republicans prevented a quorum by refusing to vote. After the forbid, Assistant Secretary of State Frederick W. Seward suggested that the countries work in concert to reduce immigration, and he and James Burrill Angell negotiated with the Chinese to do so. Congress passed a new law to that effect, the taiwanese Exclusion Act of 1882, after Hayes had left office .
indian policy [edit ]
An 1881 political cartoon about Carl Schurz ‘s management of the indian Bureau Interior Secretary Carl Schurz carried out Hayes ‘s american amerind policy, beginning with preventing the War Department from taking over the Bureau of indian Affairs. Hayes and Schurz carried out a policy that included acculturation into white polish, educational train, and dividing indian kingdom into individual family allotments. Hayes believed his policies would lead to autonomy and peace between Indians and whites. The allotment system under the Dawes Act, former signed by President Cleveland in 1887, was favored by liberal reformers at the meter, including Schurz, but rather proved damaging to american Indians. They lost much of their land through sales of what the politics classified as “ excess lands ”, and more to unscrupulous white speculators who tried to get the Indians to sell their allotments. Hayes and Schurz reformed the Bureau of indian Affairs to reduce fraud and gave Indians responsibility for policing their reservations, but they were broadly short-handed. Hayes distribute with several conflicts with amerind tribes. The Nez Perce, led by Chief Joseph, began an arise in June 1877 when Major General Oliver O. Howard ordered them to move to a reservation. Howard ‘s men defeated the Nez Perce in conflict, and the tribe began a 1,700-mile retreat to Canada. In October, after a decisive battle at Bear Paw, Montana, Chief Joseph surrendered and William T. Sherman ordered the tribe transported to indian Territory in Kansas, where they were forced to remain until 1885. The Nez Perce war was not the stopping point dispute in the West, as the Bannock rose up in spring 1878 in Idaho and raided nearby settlements before being defeated by Howard ‘s army in July. War with the Ute tribe broke out in Colorado in 1879 when some Ute killed amerind agent Nathan Meeker, who had been attempting to convert them to Christianity. The subsequent White River War ended when Schurz negotiated peace with the Ute and prevented white settlers from taking retaliation for Meeker ‘s death. Hayes besides became involved in resolving the removal of the Ponca tribe from Nebraska to indian Territory ( contemporary Oklahoma ) because of a mistake during the Grant government. The tribe ‘s problems came to Hayes ‘s attention after its head, Standing Bear, filed a lawsuit to contest Schurz ‘s demand that they stay in indian Territory. Overruling Schurz, Hayes set up a commission in 1880 that ruled the Ponca were free to return to their home territory in Nebraska or stay on their reservation in indian Territory. The Ponca were awarded recompense for their estate rights, which had been previously granted to the Sioux. In a message to Congress in February 1881, Hayes insisted he would “ give to these hurt people that measure of damages which is required alike by justice and by humanity. ”
Great western Tour of 1880 [edit ]
In 1880, Hayes embarked on a 71-day tour of the american West, becoming the second sitting president to travel west of the Rocky Mountains. ( Hayes ‘s immediate harbinger, Ulysses Grant, visited Utah in 1875. ) Hayes ‘s traveling party included his wife and William T. Sherman, who helped organize the trip. Hayes began his trip in September 1880, departing from Chicago on the transcontinental railroad. He journeyed across the continent, ultimately arriving in California, stopping foremost in Wyoming and then Utah and Nevada, reaching Sacramento and San Francisco. By railroad track and stagecoach, the party traveled north to Oregon, arriving in Portland, and from there to Vancouver, Washington. Going by steamer, they visited Seattle, and then returned to San Francisco. Hayes then toured respective southwestern states before returning to Ohio in November, in time to cast a vote in the 1880 presidential election. [ 199 ]
Hayes ‘s White House [edit ]
Hayes and his wife Lucy were known for their policy of keeping an alcohol-free White House, giving rebel to her nickname “ Lemonade Lucy. ” The beginning reception at the Hayes White House included wine, but Hayes was dismayed at bibulous behavior at receptions hosted by ambassadors around Washington, leading him to follow his wife ‘s temperance leanings. Alcohol was not served again in the Hayes White House. Critics charged Hayes with parsimony, but Hayes spent more money ( which came out of his personal budget ) after the ban, ordering that any savings from eliminating alcohol be used on more lavish entertainment. His sobriety policy besides paid political dividends, strengthening his support among protestant ministers. Although Secretary Evarts quipped that at the White House dinners, “ water flowed like wine, ” the policy was a success in convincing prohibitionists to vote Republican .
administration and Cabinet [edit ]
judicial appointments [edit ]
Stanley Matthews’s confirmation to the Supreme Court was more difficult than Hayes expected. Hayes appointed two Associate Justices to the Supreme Court. The first vacancy occurred when David Davis resigned to enter the Senate during the election controversy of 1876. On taking office, Hayes appointed John Marshall Harlan to the seat. A erstwhile campaigner for governor of Kentucky, Harlan had been Benjamin Bristow ‘s campaign coach at the 1876 Republican convention, and Hayes had earlier considered him for lawyer general. Hayes submitted the nomination in October 1877, but it aroused some dissent in the Senate because of Harlan ‘s limited experience in populace office. Harlan was however confirmed and served on the woo for 34 years, vote ( normally in the minority ) for aggressive enforcement of the civil rights laws. In 1880, a second seat became vacant upon the resignation of Justice William Strong. Hayes nominated William Burnham Woods, a carpetbagger Republican circumference court pronounce from Alabama. Woods served six years on the Court, ultimately proving a disappointment to Hayes as he interpreted the Constitution in a manner more alike to that of Southern Democrats than to Hayes ‘s own preferences. Hayes unsuccessfully attempted to fill a third void in 1881. Justice Noah Haynes Swayne resigned with the expectation that Hayes would fill his seat by appointing Stanley Matthews, a supporter of both men. many senators objected to the appointment, believing that Matthews was excessively close to corporate and railroad track interests, specially those of Jay Gould, and the Senate adjourned without voting on the nomination. The follow year, when James A. Garfield entered the White House, he resubmitted Matthews ‘s nomination to the Senate, which this time confirmed Matthews by one vote, 24 to 23. Matthews served for eight years until his death in 1889. His opinion in Yick Wo v. Hopkins in 1886 advanced his and Hayes ‘s views on the protection of heathen minorities ‘ rights .
Official White House portrait of President Hayes by Daniel Huntington, 1884 Hayes declined to seek reelection in 1880, keeping his pledge not to run for a moment term. He was gratified with the election of mate Ohio Republican James A. Garfield to succeed him, and consulted with him on appointments for the next administration. After Garfield ‘s inauguration, Hayes and his class returned to Spiegel Grove. In 1881, he was elected a companion of the military order of the Loyal Legion of the United States. He served as commander-in-chief ( national president ) of the Loyal Legion from 1888 until his death in 1893. Although he remained a firm Republican, Hayes was not excessively defeated in Democrat Grover Cleveland ‘s election to the presidency in 1884, approving of Cleveland ‘s views on civil overhaul reform. He was besides pleased at the progress of the political career of William McKinley, his united states army comrade and political protégé. Hayes became an preach for educational charities and federal education subsidies for all children. He believed education was the best way to heal the rifts in american english society and admit people to improve themselves. In 1887 Hayes was appointed to the Board of Trustees of Ohio State University, the school he helped found as governor of Ohio. He emphasized the need for vocational, equally well as academic, education : “ I preach the religious doctrine of work, ” he wrote, “ I believe in skilled labor as a separate of education. ” He urged Congress, unsuccessfully, to pass a bill written by Senator Henry W. Blair that would have allowed union help for education for the first fourth dimension. In 1889 Hayes gave a speech encouraging black students to apply for scholarships from the Slater Fund, one of the charities with which he was affiliated. One such student, W. E. B. Du Bois, received a eruditeness in 1892. Hayes besides advocated better prison conditions. In retirement, Hayes was troubled by the disparity between the full-bodied and the poor, saying in an 1886 address, “ free politics can not long endure if property is largely in a few hands and big masses of people are unable to earn homes, department of education, and a accompaniment in erstwhile senesce. ” The next year, he recorded thoughts on that national in his diary :
In church it occurred to me that it is clock for the public to hear that the giant evil and danger in this area, the danger which transcends all others, is the huge wealth owned or controlled by a few persons. Money is might. In Congress, in state legislatures, in city councils, in the courts, in the political conventions, in the press, in the dais, in the circles of the educated and the talented, its influence is growing greater and greater. excessive wealth in the hands of the few means extreme poverty, ignorance, frailty, and misery as the fortune of the many. It is not so far time to debate about the redress. The previous wonder is as to the danger—the evil. Let the people be fully informed and convinced as to the evil. Let them seriously seek the remedy and it will be found. in full to know the evil is the inaugural gradation towards reaching its eradication. Henry George is firm when he portrays the putrescence of the give system. We are, to say the least, not yet ready for his rectify. We may reach and remove the trouble by changes in the laws regulating corporations, descents of property, wills, trusts, tax, and a host of other important interests, not omitting lands and other place .
Hayes in 1886 Hayes was greatly saddened by his wife ‘s death in 1889. When she died, he wrote, “ the soul had left [ Spiegel Grove ] ”. After Lucy ‘s death, Hayes ‘s daughter Fanny became his traveling companion, and he enjoyed visits from his grandchild. In 1890, he chaired the Lake Mohonk Conference on the Negro Question, a accumulate of reformers that met in upstate New York to discuss racial issues. Hayes died of complications of a heart approach at his base on January 17, 1893, at the historic period of 70. His last words were “ I know that I ‘m going where Lucy is. ” President-elect Cleveland and Ohio Governor McKinley led the funeral progress that followed his body until Hayes was interred in Oakwood Cemetery .
bequest and honors [edit ]
Grave at Spiegel Grove After the contribution of his home to the department of state of Ohio for Spiegel Grove State Park, Hayes was reinterred there in 1915. [ 230 ] The following year the Hayes Commemorative Library and Museum, the country ‘s inaugural presidential library, opened on the web site, funded by contributions from the state of Ohio and Hayes ‘s family. Hayes had arbitrated and decided an 1878 quarrel between Argentina and Paraguay in favor of Paraguay, giving Paraguay 60 % of its stream territory. This led to the name of a province in the region after him : Presidente Hayes Department ( capital : Villa Hayes ) ; an official vacation : Laudo Hayes Firm Day, the anniversary of the decision, celebrated in Presidente Hayes state ; a local soccer team : Club Presidente Hayes ( besides known as “ Los Yanquis ” ), based in the national das kapital, Asuncion ; a postage stamp, the design of which was chosen in a contest run by the U.S. Embassy ; and evening the accord of the wish of a young female child who came out of a coma—a trip to the Hayes Presidential Center in Fremont, Ohio. [ 232 ] besides named for Hayes is Hayes County, Nebraska. [ 233 ] Hayes was elected a penis of the american Antiquarian Society in 1890. [ 234 ] Rutherford B. Hayes High School in Hayes ‘s hometown of Delaware, Ohio, was named in his honor, as is Hayes Hall, built in 1893, at the Ohio State University. It is Ohio State ‘s oldest remaining building, and was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on July 16, 1970, due to its front facade, which remains about uninfluenced from its original appearance. Hayes knew the build would be named in his honor, but did not live to see it completed. [ 235 ]
Notes [edit ]
References [edit ]
Sources [edit ]
Rutherford B. Hayes at Wikipedia’s at Wikipedia ‘s
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