Born in Gloucestershire, England, William Tyndale studied at Oxford and possibly Cambridge. He joined the reform bowel movement there, and in 1524 he moved to Hamburg, Germany, never to return to his native nation. The reformers all recognized the Bible as the authoritative voice of God that superseded the traditions of the Catholic Church. Foxe records Tyndale ’ s early passion for the Bible. He recounts that Master Tyndale happened to be in the caller of a erudite man, and in communing and disputing with the learned man about the publish of the Bible and the Catholic Church, the teach man said : “ We were better without God ’ s law than the pope ’ second. Maister Tyndall hearing that, answered him, I defy the Pope and all his laws, and said, if God spare my life ere many years, I will cause a boy that driveth the plow, shall know more of the Scripture than thousand dost. ” [ 1 ]
In 1522, Tyndale, following the impression of the Reformers that it was necessary to make the scriptures available to people in their own language ( a causal agent that was besides championed by Martin Luther, his contemporaneous ), conceived the plan of translating the Bible into English .
His translation was not the first. There is actually a hanker history of the translation of the son of God into English, beginning with a cowboy from Whitby named Caedmon who paraphrased some biblical passages into Old English in A.D. 670. Aldhelm, Bishop of Sherborne, translated the Psalter from the Vulgate into Anglo-Saxon in about A.D. 700, and the venerable Bede ( 673–735 ) translated portions of the Vulgate into Old English. He died while translating the Gospel of John. King Alfred the Great ( 871–901 ) translated parts of Exodus and Acts into Old English, and the Lindisfarne Gospels ( ca. 687 ) had an interlinear anglo-saxon transformation between the Vulgate Latin lines. John Wycliffe was the beginning to translate the whole of the Bible into Middle English in 1380, a work that predated the printing press and was frankincense disseminated in manuscript form. [ 2 ]
But whereas Wycliffe ’ south translation of the Bible was made from the Vulgate into Middle English, Tyndale was the first to translate the New Testament into Modern English from the original languages of Hebrew and Greek. He was a trailblazing pioneer among english translators because there was no model translation from Hebrew or Greek to follow. [ 3 ] Because of increasing hostility against him and the other reformers, Tyndale realized it was impossible to do the translation in England, and therefore he moved to the mainland of Europe. While working in Cologne, Worms, and Antwerp, he published his english translation of the New Testament in 1526 and his translation of the Pentateuch and the script of Jonah in 1530. He then published a retool interpretation of his original New Testament translation and the Pentateuch in 1534, and he left behind a manuscript copy of his translation of Joshua through Chronicles. [ 4 ] Because he was wanted by the Catholic Church for his dissident views and his publication of the Bible into English, he was betrayed by an consociate, kidnapped by authorities of the Church in Antwerp, and taken to Vilvorde ( near Brussels ), where he was tried for heresy and executed in 1536. His survive words were, “ Lord open the King of England ’ s eyes. ” [ 5 ] little did he know that barely before his death King Henry VIII—as a part of his fracture with the Catholic Church—had granted license for the circulation of the English Bible. The bible that was circulated was produced by Matthew Coverdale and was largely based on Tyndale ’ second work .
Because of the print crush, public demand, and fiscal bonus to publish his influence, the Tyndale Bible was widely disseminated and had great impact on english speakers and the Bible itself. In 1604 the King James translators were commissioned to produce a new transformation. It was to be based on previous translations and of all of the translations, Tyndale ’ s was by far the most influential. For centuries the King James Bible has been rightfully praised as a “ literary masterpiece, ” as the premier exemplar of the English language, and as a textbook that has shaped modern English. But in the last half of the twentieth hundred, scholars have discovered that much of the genius of the speech of the King James Version was, in fact, originally the exercise of William Tyndale. The holocene and authoritative study by Jon Nielson and Royal Skousen has determined that a huge percentage of the familiar speech of the King James Version comes from Tyndale. According to their sketch, about 76 percentage of the Old Testament and 84 percentage of the New Testament text of the King James Version are the retained words of Tyndale. [ 6 ] The transformation of the son of God into the modern speak lyric of English, from the original languages of Hebrew and Greek, was an extraordinary accomplishment in the one-sixteenth century, not because scholars did not know Hebrew and Greek, but because English had not established itself as a terminology for unplayful matters. The train elite—those trained in the classical languages of Greek and Latin—considered English a barbaric lyric without the building complex grammatical nuances necessary to by rights express the password of God. In fact, a consider was held in 1401 at Oxford between a homo named Richard Ullerston and his critics as to whether English was an allow language for the translation of the Bible. The decision rendered by Thomas Arundel, the archbishop of Canterbury, efficaciously banned the english language from any aspect of English church life : “ We therefore legislate and ordain that cipher shall from this day away translate any text of the Holy Scriptures on his own authority into the English. ” [ 7 ] In addition, at the time of Tyndale the switch from Middle to Modern English had precisely begun. Tyndale ’ s translation, along with Shakespeare and the King James Version, would establish Modern English as we know it today .
It is said that Tyndale was a victor of seven foreign languages, [ 8 ] but most importantly, he was a master of his native language, English. Translators of the Bible before Tyndale relied on the Latin Vulgate ( the official version of the Bible for the Catholic Church ), but Tyndale believed that the original Hebrew and Greek of the scriptures were languages more appropriately rendered into English than Latin : “ Saint Jerome besides translated the Bible into his beget tongue [ i, the Latin Vulgate ] : why may not we besides ? They will say it can not be translated into our spit, it is so ill-bred. It is not so uncivil as they are false liars. For the Greek natural language agreeth more with the English than with the Latin. And the properties of the Hebrew tongue agreeth a thousand more times with the English than with the Latin. ” [ 9 ] In the case of Hebrew, scholars have noted that Tyndale was right in sensing the transcendence of English to Latin in matters of rendering Hebrew syntax. One learner has noted that Hebrew and English have like word orders and that in his english translation Tyndale masterfully rendered the syntax of the original Hebrew into a fluent and rhythmical English prose that in turn charm English writers. [ 10 ]
Tyndale ’ mho Words “ Fitly Spoken ”
In the summons of his translation, Tyndale bequeathed much of the memorable English wording that we associate with the sacredness of the word of God. Consider the conversant cadences of the following phrases created by Tyndale : “ let there be light, and there was light, ” “ male and female created he them, ” “ who told thee that thousand wast naked ? ” “ my buddy ’ south custodian, ” “ the Lord bless thee, and keep thee : the Lord make his confront fall upon thee, ” “ thousand shalt love the Lord thy God with all thine kernel, with all thy soul and with all thy might, ” “ the strategic arms limitation talks of the earth, ” “ the powers that be, ” “ a jurisprudence unto themselves, ” “ filthy boodle, ” and “ fight the good fight. ” These phrases have become shanghai in the english speech both in religious converse and proverbial expressions. One learner frankincense assesses Tyndale ’ s contribution to language : “ It would be hard to overpraise the literary merits of what he had done. much of his rendering would later be incorporated into the Authorized or King James Version, and the rhythmical beauty of his prose, nice habit of synonym for novelty, kind, and point, and ‘ charming simplicity of phrase ’ imposed itself on all by and by versions, down to the present day. ” [ 11 ]
Tyndale faced a big challenge in rendering Hebrew and greek words into his native English. Words are knock-down instruments in the transfer of entail, and frankincense the translation of words is identical slippery. Within a language words develop complex semantic fields—that is, sets of meanings depending on context and use. therefore any specific news is much very difficult, if not impossible, to accurately translate into another linguistic process since a corresponding term with the same semantic fields may not be found. As the old italian proverb goes, tradutore traditore— “ a interpreter is a traitor. ” Any picture of a text from one lyric to another inescapably involves interpretation and the switch of mean .
The choice of words can besides be theologically loaded. Since Tyndale was a Protestant, his translation was cautiously phrased in orderliness to country the viewpoints of the reformers. In several celebrated cases, Tyndale intentionally chose to render words that had a long bequest among Catholicism with new terms that Catholics found nauseating. For example, he used “ congregation ” rather of “ church, ” “ elder ” alternatively of “ priest, ” “ repentance ” alternatively of “ do repentance, ” and “ love ” rather of “ charity. ” Tyndale ’ s english translations of these words were in many cases credibly more accurate translations of the greek terms, but they differed from the familiar Vulgate upon which much Christian theology had been based. These terms are loaded : “ do penance ” had sacramental implications rejected by many reformers—whereas “ repentance ” more closely reflected an act that could be done by an individual before God without the want of the church. And Tyndale preferred the term “ beloved ” as being more allusive to the Protestant understanding of grace and the term “ charity ” to be more in tune with the Catholic emphasis on works. These changes were dysphemistic to Catholics and were heavily criticized by many, including Tyndale ’ mho countryman, Thomas More. [ 12 ] Interestingly enough, the King James translators chose to retain the traditional terms “ church, ” “ priest, ” and “ charity, ” but nowhere does one find the parole “ penance ” in the King James Version .
Like most translators, Tyndale sought to render the biblical text into plain and misprint English and tried to capture the sense of each news in its original linguistic process and context. In many cases, particularly in the Old Testament, Tyndale came upon ancient words and phrases that did not have accurate English counterparts. Tyndale studied the original Hebrew and/or Greek of the biblical textbook and then looked at the ancient translations in Greek and Latin—the Septuagint and the Vulgate—for avail. He could besides consult Wycliffe ’ s translation—which was not very utilitarian because it was in Middle English and rendered from the Vulgate. Tyndale obviously made great use of Luther ’ south german translation of the New Testament in 1522, for its grammar, vocabulary, and theology. [ 13 ] In several cases Tyndale solved translation problems by ingeniously coining newfangled english words. sometimes he plainly transformed older english words, and sometimes he invented new and singular English words—some of which have become common vocabulary in religious discourse in English. here we will look at six such “ newly coined ” words : Jehovah, Passover, atonement, scapegoat, mercifulness seat, and shewbread .
Jehovah. possibly the most significant of the “ raw ” words that Tyndale bequeathed us is the name of God—Jehovah. Throughout the Hebrew Bible, the proper name of God is rendered with the tetragrammaton YHWH—which occurs, according to one count, 6,828 times. [ 14 ] The ancient voice of the four consonants of this diagnose is not known, but scholars hypothesize that it was pronounced “ Yahweh. ” Because of the holiness of this name within Judaism, a tradition developed to call God not by His appoint but by the appellation Lord, or Adonai in Hebrew. At the end of the fifth hundred after Christ, the Massoretes ( who first put the vowels in the Hebrew text ) reflected this tradition by putting the vowels for the Hebrew son Adonai below the consonants of the tetragrammaton, thereby directing the reader to read Adonai preferably than the list of God contained in the tetragrammaton. The early greek and Latin translators followed the jewish custom and simply rendered the tetragrammaton as greek kyrios or latin Dominus. In his Middle English translation, Wycliffe rendered YHWH as Adonai, and Luther translated the son into the german HERR ( “ Lord ” ) using capital letters, presumably to distinguish it from the translation of the Hebrew news Adonai in the Bible into Herr .
tyndale followed this custom and used the English word LORDE throughout his translation, and apparently following Luther he put the word into capital letters. There are several times in bible, however, when Tyndale deemed the name of God itself to be essential to the meaning of the text. For exercise, Tyndale rendered Exodus 6:3 as follows : “ And God spake unto Moses saying unto him : I am the Lord, and I appeared unto Abraham, Isaac and Jacob an godhead God : but in my list Jehovah was I not known unto them. ” Thus, Tyndale gave us the first happening of the word Jehovah—an anglicized form of the Hebrew YHWH—in English. The word “ Jehovah ” was formed by using the vowels of Adonai with the consonants YHWH producing YaHoWaH or YaHoVaH—since the Hebrew letter tungsten can be pronounced as “ w ” or “ v. ” Some have given Tyndale accredit for actually inventing the password Jehovah, but scholars have found prior attestations of this discussion in a Latin theological textbook by Petrus Galatinus dating to A.D. 1520 and suspect that it might go back even further. [ 15 ] Whether a similar name already existed in Latin or not, according to the Oxford English Dictionary it was Tyndale who was responsible for coining this condition in English. Tyndale besides used Jehovah in titles such as Jehovah Nissi in Exodus 17:15 and Jehovah Shalom in Judges 6:24 .
At the end of his translation of Genesis, Tyndale included a list of words explaining his translations of assorted Hebrew words. In these notes Tyndale explains the name Jehovah : “ Jehovah is God ’ second identify, neither is any creature so called. And it is angstrom much to say as one that is of himself, and dependeth of nothing. furthermore angstrom frequently as thousand seest LORD in great letters ( except there be an erroneousness in the print ) it is in Hebrew Jehovah, thousand that art or he that is. ” [ 16 ]
The King James translators followed Tyndale and his predecessors in using the English bible Lord, with the “ L ” as a full-sized capital and the “ ORD ” in modest capital letters, to render the tetragrammaton. But in a few passages they besides deemed it necessary to use the name Jehovah. For example, in the passage in Exodus 6:3 the King James Version follows Tyndale ’ s rendering. The King James Version includes Jehovah in four other places in the Old Testament ( Genesis 22:14 ; Psalm 83:18 ; Isaiah 12:2 and 26:4 ). Within the Restoration, the word Jehovah is the accept word in English to represent Jesus Christ as the God of the Old Testament in the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, and the Pearl of Great Price. [ 17 ]
passover. Throughout the Old Testament, Tyndale was faced with many legal and religious Hebrew terms that were unmanageable to find english equivalents for. The custom among previous translators was plainly to render the Hebrew bible into some form of the translation language. Tyndale met with the first of the jewish festivals in Exodus—Passover. The translation of the Hebrew names of the Old Testament festivals posed an matter to challenge for translators. The greek and latin translators, along with Wycliffe and Luther, plainly rendered Hebrew Shabbath with some shape of the Hebrew news : greek, Sabbata ; Latin, Sabbata ; Wycliffe, Sabbath ; German, Sabbatag. Tyndale rendered it sabbath day. then there were the three Hebrew pilgrimage festivals : Pesach, Shavuoth, and Sukkoth. Tyndale simply translated two of these words into english : Shavuoth as “ weeks ” and Sukkoth, meaning tents, as “ tabernacles. ” however, there was not an english word for the Hebrew Pesach. early translators plainly transliterated the Hebrew letters in its place : greek, pesaq ; Latin as phase ( using a unlike pronunciation of the Hebrew letters ) or pasqua ; Wycliffe used Pasch ; and Luther, Passa .
Tyndale noted that the noun passover in Hebrew was used to refer to the sacrifice itself—the paschal lamb—as well as to the festival itself. In addition, he noted that in Hebrew the noun passover derived from a verb P-S-CH that meant “ to pass over ” or “ jumpstart over ” —which was authoritative in the report of the foundation garment of this festival in Exodus 12, where the Lord explains that the passover lamb is a type of the fact that the Lord will “ jump, hop, or happen ” over the children of Israel and deliver them from death ( Exodus 12:13 ). tyndale may besides have noted that Jerome, in his romance translation, had attempted to render this same Hebrew pun. He used the term transitus Domini ( “ the authorize over of the Lord ” ) to describe the paschal sacrifice ( Exodus 12:11 ), and the verb transeo, “ to pass over, ” as it is used in Exodus 12:13 ( alternating current transibo vos, “ I will pass over you ” ). elsewhere Jerome maintained phase or pasqua as the translation of Hebrew passover .
Tyndale, determined to preserve the Hebrew pun in English, ingeniously invented the new English give voice Passover for the festival. thus, in English the festival is called Passover, and the verb of the Lord render Israel are “ passed over. ” In the beginning biblical occurrence of the term passover in Exodus 12, “ and ye shall eat it in haste : it is the Lords passover ” ( v. 11 ), Tyndale added this pithy marginal note : “ The lamb was called passover that the very diagnose itself should put them in memorial what it signified. For the signs that God ordained either signified the benefits done, or promises to come and were not dumb as are the signs of our speechless idol the Pope. ” [ 18 ] Tyndale finishes his explanation of the Lord ’ s passover : “ for I will go about in the land of Egypt.. .. I will pass over you ” ( Exodus 12:12–13 ) .
queerly enough, Tyndale did not use his newly coined news in the New Testament but preferred the term Easter—which Christians of his clock time routinely used for the Christian festival. The term Easter, though derived from the name of a heathen goddess of the dawn, had in Tyndale ’ s day become firm attached to the christian celebration of Passover. It is likely that by using the condition by which all Christians who spoke English knew the christian celebration of the Passover/Resurrection, Tyndale was attempting to communicate that the previous festival of the law of Moses—Passover—had been fulfilled in Christ. Thus, in the Gospels Tyndale used Easter for the final Supper ( Matthew 26 ; visit besides Mark 14 ; Luke 22 ) and referred to the Easter lamb in 1 Corinthians 5:7 and Hebrews 11:28. tyndale would likely have been amused that the King James translators would use his password Passover in all these Gospel passages, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as throughout the Old Testament—using Easter merely in Acts 12:4. Some have argued that Tyndale was influenced by Luther ’ sulfur use of the german Oestern in Acts 12:4, but everywhere else that Tyndale rendered the news Easter, Luther used Passa. The romance languages French ( paque ), italian ( pasqua ), and Spanish ( pascua ) adopted a human body of the original Hebrew—probably from the Vulgate—and in these countries the festival is known by a magnetic declination of its original Hebrew name Pesach. The term Easter prevailed among english-speaking Christians in reference to the Christian festival. But the jewish festival, throughout the Bible and throughout Christian and jewish discourse ( in Christian Bible dictionaries and even in the Encyclopedia Judaica ), is everywhere called by Tyndale ’ s clever discussion Passover .
Atonement. Leviticus 16 contains a description of the most grave of the festivals of the police of Moses called Yom Kippur in Hebrew. [ 19 ] Tyndale coined three new english words in concurrence with this festival : atonement, scapegoat, and mercifulness seat. The Hebrew root behind Kippur is K-P-R, which has the smell of “ to cover up ” and occurs in context where it means “ to appease, make amends, or accommodate. ” [ 20 ] Leviticus 16 contains many occurrences of this give voice in a verbal class describing the rituals of reconciliation between God and man. The Septuagint translates this news intend “ reconciliation ” with versatile greek words including exilasmos and hilasterion, which both mean “ propitiation. ” The Vulgate uses expiationum—which has the sense of satisfying or appeasing .
Tyndale went in search of the perfect son that could be used as a noun or a verb and would describe the action by which man would offer sacrifices and offerings in order to cover over, quell, make amends, or reconcile with God. The discussion he coined was atonement. While many have stated that Tyndale invented this discussion, the Oxford English Dictionary lists respective variations and combinations of “ at ” and “ one, ” such as “ to one, ” “ at one, ” or “ at once, ” “ one ment ” ( used by Wycliffe ), and “ atonement, ” that were used in Tyndale ’ randomness time. But Tyndale saw that this condition was a very commodity pit for the theological context of the kinship between God and serviceman and put the verb expiate and the noun expiation into his passages in the Old and New Testaments .
Tyndale used atonement in his 1526 New Testament in 2 Corinthians 5:18 : “ sermon of the atonement ” ( KJV “ ministry of reconciliation ” ). While this condition has become a common theological term in religious discussions, the King James translators continued to use this word in terms of the Old Testament custom but only actually used the term expiation in Romans 5:11. They preferred to use the words reconciliation and placation in the New Testament. however, this condition has become the park appointment throughout Christianity for the saving acts of Jesus Christ on behalf of the children of men and the possibility of reconciliation and “ at-one-ment ” offered through His sacrifice .
Scapegoat. Leviticus 16 describes the ritual of the Day of Atonement in which two goats are selected—one for forfeit and
the early to set the sins on and to be sent out to the wilderness. The Hebrew bible for this second goat is Azazel, a password that only occurs in this context in the Hebrew Bible. The early greek and romance translators presumed, probably incorrectly, that this password was made up of Hebrew ‘ ez ‘ ozel mean “ a capricorn that goes away ” ( in Greek, chimaros apopompaios, “ to be sent away, ” and in Latin, caper emis-sarius ). tyndale followed the Greek and Latin and invented a new english term for this entity. Using the English word scape, a form of get off ( Tyndale ’ mho use of shaft in Matthew 15:18 : “ One tytle of the lawe shall not scape tyll all be fulfilled ” [ 1526 ] ) together with goat to get scapegoat .
biblical scholars now believe that the term Azazel is most likely a proper identify of a demon of some screen, and thus modern English translations normally render the term as Azazel. The term invented by Tyndale, however, is still accurate as a description of this capricorn that would be sent out to the wilderness bearing all of the sins of Israel, and the concept of the scapegoat has become a common proverbial formula in English .
Mercy seat. In the book of Exodus, the Lord commanded the children of Israel to construct the ark of the covenant. On the top of this ark was a cover of arrant gold—in Hebrew called the kapporeth—cognate with kippur, rendered “ expiation ” ( as discussed above ). The greek term used is hilasterion, and the latin term is propitiatoriaum. Both terms refer to the function of the covering on the holy day of atonement when the high priest would come into the holy of holies and sprinkle the blood of the sacrifice on the cover. In his 1526 New Testament, Tyndale rendered this term as “ the seate of grace ” in Hebrews 9:5, but in his translation of the Old Testament, most likely influenced by Luther ’ s Gnadenstuhle ( literally “ grace ” or “ clemency ” with “ chair ” or “ seat ” ), Tyndale coined the term “ merciseate ” ( Exodus 25:17,18 ). While Tyndale kept “ seat of grace ” in his 1524 New Testament, the King James translators used the term “ mercie seat ” throughout the Old and the New Testaments. The condition “ mercy seat ” nicely links the estimate of expiation implied by the Hebrew son kapporeth as it is linguistically linked with the host of terms dealing with repentance and forgiveness and the reconciliation offered to ancient Israel at this consecrated cover. frankincense, it became a common term in religious discussion. modern translations much opt for less interpretative words. The New Revised Standard Version ( NRSV ) kept “ mercifulness seat, ” while the New International Version ( NIV ) translated “ atonement cover, ” and the New Jewish Publication Society Translation ( NJPS ) merely renders “ cover. ”
Shewbread. In the description of the interior of the tabernacle, the Hebrew speaks of bread that is set out on a table before the Lord each week, described in Hebrew as lechem panim—literally “ bread before the side ” or “ presence ” of the Lord ( Exodus 25:30 ). The Greek used artoi enopioi ( literally “ bread of the confront ” ) and Latin used panes propositionis ( literally “ bread setting forth for public position ” ). Luther used schaubrot ( literally “ display boodle ” or “ shown bread ” ). Tyndale, possibly influenced by Luther, invented a fresh English parole literally translating the Hebrew by combining prove ( marked “ prove ” ) and boodle, apparently meaning boodle shown to the Lord. While this term is silent used by those who read the King James Version, most modern translations have opted for a more literal translation such as “ boodle of the presence ” ( NIV, NRSV ), or “ boodle of display ” ( NJPS ) .
Some of our six sample words are significant and essential in Restoration bible. For case, the word Jehovah is the accept render of the name of the Lord Jesus Christ in the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, the Pearl of Great Price, and throughout latter-day Saint religious sermon. The words repent and atonement occur throughout the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, and the Pearl of Great Price as a description of the redemptive forfeit of the Savior. The english word expiation is regularly used in explaining the nature of Christ ’ s redemptive sacrifice and its ability to heal, make whole, and reconcile the break relationship between God and humans caused by the Fall and by our sins. And who can imagine singing the hymn “ I Stand All Amazed ” without the trope of presenting oneself at the “ mercy seat ” ? [ 21 ]
Tyndale realized that he was breaking raw ground. In a touch insertion to the 1526 New Testament he wrote : “ Them that are learned Christenly, I beseche : for equally moche as I am certain, and my conscience beareth me recorde, that of a pure entent, singily and faythfully I have interpreted itt, as farre forth as god gave me the gyfte of cognition, and understondynge : that the rudnes off the worke nowe at the fyrst tyme, offende them not : but that they con-syder howe that I had no man to counterfet, nether was holpe with englysshe of eny that had intetpreted the same, or soche lyke thinge in the bible before tyme. ” [ 22 ]
Tyndale ’ s translation was carefully constructed with words “ appropriately spoken ” ( Proverbs 25:11 ). Throughout the ages his words, both in his translation and as they are preserved in the King James Translation, have brought and continue to bring many to Christ. indeed, in his own words directed to the readers of his translation he invites us as follows : “ Geve diligence Reder ( I exhorte the ) that thou come with a pure mynde, and as the scripture sayth with a syngle eye, unto the wordes of health, and of eternall lyfe : by the which ( if we repent and beleve them ) we are bear anewe, created afresshe, and enioye the frutes off the bloud of Christ. ” [ 23 ]
[ 1 ] John Foxe, Book of Martyrs, 1877, intravenous feeding, 117, as cited in David Daniell, The Bible in English : Its History and Influence ( New Haven, Conn. : Yale University Press, 2003 ), 142 ( referee. 805 note 26 ) .
[ 2 ] For a compendious and clear review of english translations of the Bible before 1611, see Paul D. Wegner, The Journey from Texts to Translations : The Origin and Development of the Bible ( Grand Rapids, Mich. : Baker Books, 1999 ), 271-304 .
[ 3 ] See Tyndale ‘s insertion to the New Testament in The New Testament 1526 Translated by William Tyndale, Original Spelling Edition, erectile dysfunction. W. R. Cooper ( London : The british Library, 2000 ), 554 .
[ 4 ] The translations of Tyndale are readily available for the modern reviewer in three editions : Tyndale ‘s Old Testament, Being the Pentateuch of 1530, Joshua to 2 Chronicles of 1537, and Jonah, erectile dysfunction. David Daniell ( New Haven, Conn. : Yale University Press, 1992 ) ; Tyndale ‘s New Testament, Translated from the greek by William Tyndale 1534 ( New Haven, Conn. : Yale University Press, 1989 ) ; William Tyndale, trans., The New Testament 1526 .
[ 5 ] As cited in Daniell, Bible in English, 156 .
[ 6 ] See Jon Nielson and Royal Skousen, “ How Much of the King James Bible Is William Tyndale ‘s ? An estimate Based on Sampling, ” in Reformation 3 ( 1998 ) : 49-74 .
[ 7 ] As cited in Alister E. McGrath, In the begin : The Story of the King James Bible and How It Changed a state, a Language, and a Culture ( New York : Doubleday, 2001 ), 33 .
[ 8 ] Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Italian, Spanish, French, and german. See Daniell, Bible in English, 142 .
[ 9 ] As cited in Daniell, Tyndale ‘s Old Testament, xiv-xv .
[ 10 ] Gerald Hammond has far noted : “ Tyndale ‘s call for the superiority of English over Latin is, in perfume, a matter of comparative syntax, and, broadly speaking, Tyndale is right. The lone major mutant between Hebrew and English parole order is that in Hebrew the verb normally precedes the subject—as in “ and said Moses ” —and that the adjectival often follows the noun. In all other respects, in particular the function of and inclination of qualifying clauses, the sixteenth-century translators followed Tyndale ‘s lead in letting their renderings be governed by the syntax of the original. The result was the fluid and rhythmical prose which marks the narrative and prophetic books of the Hebrew Bible ” ( The Making of the English Bible [ Manchester : Carcanet New Press, 1982 ], 45 ) .
[ 11 ] Benson Bobrick, Wide As the Waters : The Story of the English Bible and the Revolution It Inspired ( New York : Simon & Schuster, 2001 ), 104-5 .
[ 12 ] The significance of Tyndale ‘s translation in the reclamation can be measured by the vigorous opposition mounted against him by the Catholic Church. Thomas More, the Christian human-centered and defender of the faith, criticized Tyndale ‘s translation and theology extensively in Dialogue Concerning Heresies— to which Tyndale responded and defended himself in An Answer unto Sir Thomas Mores Dialogue of 1531—and in the massive confutation of Tyndale ‘s Answer, a work that totaled about two thousand pages ( see Daniell, Bible in English, 149 ) .
[ 13 ] See Gerald Hammond, “ William Tyndale ‘s torah : Its Relation to Luther ‘s german Bible and the Hebrew Original, ” in Renaissance Quarterly 33 ( 1980 ) : 351-85 .
[ 14 ] See Ernst Jenni and Claus Westermann, Theological Lexicon of the Old Testament, trans. Mark E. Biddle, 3 vols. ( Peabody, Mass. : Hendrickson, 1997 ), 2:524
[ 15 ] Catholic scholars have traced a romance form of Jehovah bet on to the thirteenth hundred ( A. J. Maus, “ Jehovah, ” in The Catholic Encyclopedia, 15 vols. [ New York : Robert Appleton, 1909 ], 8:329-31 ) .
[ 16 ] Daniell, Tyndale ‘s Old Testament, 82 .
[ 17 ] See 2 Nephi 22:2 ; Moroni 10:34 ; D & C 109:34, 42, 56, 68 ; 110:3 ; 128:9 ; Abraham 1:16 .
[ 18 ] Daniell, Tyndale ‘s Old Testament, 105 .
[ 19 ] Yom Kippur is the coarse jewish appointment of the festival. The biblical name for this festival is yom kippurim ( Leviticus 23:27 ; 25:9 ), but this appellation does not occur in the description of the festival itself in Leviticus 16 .
[ 20 ] William L. Holladay, A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament ( Grand Rapids, Mich. : Eerdmans, 1972 ), 163. Scholars debate the beginning of the root K-P-R. Cognates in other semitic lyric seem to be from two different roots, one mean “ to uproot, wipe away ” and the other intend “ to cover, hide. ”
[ 21 ] Hymns of The Church of Jesus Christ of latter-day Saints ( Salt Lake City : The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1985 ), no. 193 .
[ 22 ] Tyndale, trans. New Testament 1526, 554 .
[ 23 ] Tyndale, trans. New Testament 1526, 553 .