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Caligula – Wikipedia

  1. ^Roman History LIX.6.Cassius Dio ,
  2. ^Wood, Susan (1995). “Diva Drusilla Panthea and the Sisters of Caligula”. American Journal of Archaeology. 99 (3): 457–482. doi:10.2307/506945. ISSN 0002-9114. JSTOR 506945. S2CID 191386576.
  3. a bThe Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 9.Suetonius ,
  4. ^caliga, meaning soldier’s boot, and the infix -ul.

    ” Caligula ” is formed from the Latin word, meaning soldier’s boot, & the diminutive

  5. ^

    Seneca the Younger, On the Firmness of a Wise Person XVIII 2–5. See Malloch, ‘Gaius and the nobiles’, Athenaeum (2009).

  6. ^The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 2
  7. a b c d e fThe Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 10
  8. a bThe Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius Suetonius, , Life of Tiberius 54
  9. ^The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius Suetonius, , Life of Tiberius 64
  10. ^The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius Suetonius, , Life of Tiberius 62
  11. a b c dThe Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 12
  12. ^The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula, Life of Caligula 11
  13. ^Roman History LVII.23.Cassius Dio ,
  14. ^On the Embassy to Gaius VI.35.Philo of Alexandria ,
  15. ^The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius Suetonius, , Life of Tiberius 76
  16. ^On the Embassy to Gaius Antiquities of the Jews XIII.6.9.Philo of Alexandria, IV. 25 ; Josephus, XIII. 6.9 .
  17. a b cRoman History LIX.1.Cassius Dio ,
  18. ^On the Embassy to Gaius II.10.Philo of Alexandria ,
  19. ^The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 13
  20. ^The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius Suetonius, , Life of Tiberius 75
  21. ^The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 14
  22. ^On the Embassy to Gaius II.12.Philo mentions widespread sacrifice, but no estimation on the degree, Philo of Alexandria ,
  23. ^On the Embassy to Gaius II.13.Philo of Alexandria ,
  24. ^The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 15
  25. ^

    Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.3.

  26. ^Wiedemann 1996, p. 223. Claudius was made Caligula’s consular colleague in the new emperor’s first consulship.
  27. ^Wiedemann 1996, p. 223. “It is useless to date the turning-point to before the death of Antonia (two months after his accession), an illness in the autumn… which is supposed to have affected his brain, or the death of his sister Drusilla”.
  28. ^Woods, David (2010). “Caligula’s Quadrans”. The Numismatic Chronicle. 170: 99–103. ISSN 0078-2696. JSTOR 42678887.
  29. ^Roman History LIX.9–10.Cassius Dio ,
  30. ^The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 16.2
  31. ^Roman History LIX.9.7.Cassius Dio ,
  32. a bRoman History LIX.10.Cassius Dio ,
  33. a bThe Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 37
  34. a b cThe Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 38
  35. a bThe Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 41
  36. ^The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 40
  37. ^Roman History LIX.14.Cassius Dio ,
  38. a b cRoman History LIX.15.Cassius Dio ,
  39. ^The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero, Life of Nero 30
  40. a bWilkinson, Sam (2003). Caligula. London: Routledge. p. 10. ISBN 978-0203003725. OCLC 57298122.
  41. ^Alston, Richard (2002). Aspects of Roman history, AD 14–117. London: Routledge. p. 82. ISBN 978-0203011874. OCLC 648154931.
  42. a b

    Seneca the Younger, On the Shortness of Life XVIII.5.

  43. ^Antiquities of the Jews XIX.2.5.Josephus ,
  44. a b c dThe Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 21
  45. a bThe Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 22
  46. ^The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Natural History XXXVI.122.Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 21, Life of Claudius đôi mươi ; Pliny the Elder, XXXVI. 122 .
  47. ^

    Pliny the Elder, Natural History XVI.76.

  48. ^Roman History LIX.15; Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Cassius Dio, LIX. 15 ; Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 37
  49. ^Wardle, David (2007). “Caligula’s Bridge of Boats – AD 39 or 40?”. Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte. 56 (1): 118–120. doi:10.25162/historia-2007-0009. ISSN 0018-2311. JSTOR 25598379. S2CID 164017284.
  50. a b c dThe Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 19
  51. ^The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 54
  52. ^Kroos, Kenneth A. (1 July 2011). “Central Heating for Caligula’s Pleasure Ship”. The International Journal for the History of Engineering & Technology. 81 (2): 291–299. doi:10.1179/175812111X13033852943471. ISSN 1758-1206. S2CID 110624972.
  53. ^Carlson, Deborah N. (May 2002). “Caligula’s Floating Palaces”. Archaeology. 55 (3): 26–31. JSTOR 41779576.
  54. a b cRoman History LIX.16; Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Cassius Dio, LIX. 16 ; Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 30
  55. a b

    Tacitus, Annals IV.41.

  56. a b cThe Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 26
  57. a b c

    Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.22.

  58. ^The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 35
  59. ^

    Pliny the Elder, Natural History V.2.

  60. ^Roman History LX.8Cassius Dio ,
  61. a b cBarrett 2002, p. 118
  62. a b cRoman History LIX.25.Cassius Dio ,
  63. ^Sigman, Marlene C. (1977). “The Romans and the Indigenous Tribes of Mauritania Tingitana”. Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte. 26 (4): 415–439. JSTOR 4435574.
  64. ^The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Wiedemann 1996, p. 228; Suetonius,, Life of Caligula 45–47
  65. ^Iliad, Book 2, line 204., Book 2, line 204 .
  66. ^On the Embassy to Gaius XI–XV.Philo of Alexandria ,
  67. ^Roman History LIX.26.Cassius Dio ,
  68. a b c dRoman History LIX.28.Cassius Dio ,
  69. ^A Treasure of Royal Scandals, p. 209. Penguin Books, New York. ISBN 0-7394-2025-9.Farquhar, Michael ( 2001 )., p. 209. Penguin Books, Thành Phố New York .
  70. ^A History of the Roman People: Third Edition, 1999, Prentice-Hall, Inc.Allen Ward, Cedric Yeo, và Fritz Heichelheim, 1999, Prentice-Hall, Inc .
  71. a b

    Cassius Dio, Roman History LI.20.

  72. ^Roman History LIX.26–28.Cassius Dio ,
  73. ^Antiquities of the Jews Flaccus V.25.Josephus, XVIII. 6.10 ; Philo of Alexandria ,
  74. ^

    Philo of Alexandria, Flaccus III.8, IV.21.

  75. ^

    Philo of Alexandria, Flaccus V.26–28.

  76. ^Flaccus VVI.43Philo of Alexandria ,
  77. ^Flaccus VII.45.Philo of Alexandria ,
  78. ^Flaccus XXI.185.Philo of Alexandria ,
  79. a b cAntiquities of the Jews XVIII.7.2.Josephus ,
  80. a b cAntiquities of the Jews XVIII.8.1.Josephus ,
  81. a bOn the Embassy to Gaius XXX.201.Philo of Alexandria ,
  82. a bOn the Embassy to Gaius XXX.203.Philo of Alexandria ,
  83. a bOn the Embassy to Gaius XVI.115.Philo of Alexandria ,
  84. ^On the Embassy to Gaius XXXI.213.Philo of Alexandria ,
  85. ^Antiquities of the Jews XVIII.8.Josephus ,
  86. ^

    Seneca the Younger, On Anger xviii.1, On Anger III.xviii.1; On the Shortness of Life xviii.5; Philo of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius XXIX.

  87. ^

    Seneca the Younger, On Firmness xviii.1.

  88. ^

    Seneca the Younger, On Anger III.xviii.1.

  89. ^” Daily life in the pearson age calculator
    City “. Aldrete, Gregory .
  90. ^Roman History LIX.10Cassius Dio ,
  91. ^Roman History LIX.11, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Cassius Dio, LIX. 22 ; Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 24
  92. ^The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 46 – 47
  93. ^Woods, David (2014). “Caligula, Incitatus, and the Consulship”. The Classical Quarterly. 64 (2): 772–777. doi:10.1017/S0009838814000470. ISSN 0009-8388. S2CID 170216093.
  94. ^The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Roman History LIX.14.Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 55 ; Cassius Dio ,
  95. ^Younger, John G. (2005). Sex in the Ancient World from A to Z. Routledge. xvi. ISBN 978-0-415-24252-3.
  96. ^

    Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.1.1.

  97. ^The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Annals 16.17; Josephus, Antiquities of Jews XIX.1.2.Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 56 ; Tacitus, 16.17 ; Josephus ,
  98. ^Antiquities of the Jews XIX.1.3.Josephus ,
  99. ^Antiquities of the Jews XIX.1.10, XIX.1.14.Josephus ,
  100. ^Antiquities of the Jews XIX.1.6.Josephus ,
  101. ^The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 56
  102. ^On Firmness xviii.2; Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.1.5.Seneca the Younger, xviii. 2 ; Josephus ,
  103. ^On Firmness xviii.2; Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Seneca the Younger, xviii. 2 ; Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 56
  104. ^Suetonius [128]58 : “On the ninth day before the Kalends of February… Ruled three years, ten months and eight days”; Cassius Dio LIX.30. : “Thus Gaius, after doing in three years, nine months, and twenty-eight days all that has been related, learned by actual experience that he was not a god.” (this seems to give 23 January, but Dio is probably using exclusive reckoning, which does give 24).
  105. ^The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 58
  106. ^On Firmness xviii.2; Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Antiquities of the Jews XIX.1.14.Seneca the Younger, xviii. 2 ; Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 58 ; Josephus ,
  107. ^The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 58.Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 57
  108. ^Antiquities of the Jews Josephus, XIX. 1.15 ; Suetonius, Life of Caligula 58
  109. ^Antiquities of the Jews XIX.2.Josephus ,
  110. a bAntiquities of the Jews XIX.4.4.Josephus ,
  111. ^The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 59
  112. ^Antiquities of the Jews XIX.2.1.Josephus ,
  113. ^The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Claudius Antiquities of the Jews XIX 268–269; Cassius Dio, Roman History LX 3, 4.Suetonius, Life of Claudius 11 ; JosephusXIX 268 – 269 ; Cassius Dio, LX ba, bốn .
  114. ^

    Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.19.

  115. ^

    Tacitus, Life of Gnaeus Julius Agricola X, Annals XIII.20.

  116. ^

    Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.1.13.

  117. a bSidwell, Barbara (18 March 2010). “Gaius Caligula’s Mental Illness”. Classical World. 103 (2): 183–206. doi:10.1353/clw.0.0165. ISSN 1558-9234. PMID 20213971.
  118. ^

    Philo of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius XIII.

  119. ^

    Seneca the Younger, On the Firmness of the Wise Person XVIII.1; Seneca the Younger, On Anger I.xx.8.

  120. ^

    Seneca the Younger, On the Firmness of the Wise Person XVII–XVIII; Seneca the Younger, On Anger I.xx.8.

  121. ^

    Philo of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius II–IV.

  122. ^Benediktson, D. Thomas (1989). “Caligula’s Madness: Madness or Interictal Temporal Lobe Epilepsy?”. The Classical World. 82 (5): 370–375. doi:10.2307/4350416. ISSN 0009-8418. JSTOR 4350416.
  123. ^The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Suetonius, , Life of Caligula 50
  124. ^Benediktson, D. Thomas (1991). “Caligula’s Phobias and Philias: Fear of Seizure?”. The Classical Journal. 87 (2): 159–163. ISSN 0009-8353. JSTOR 3297970.
  125. ^The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Augustus Suetonius, , Life of Augustus 64, Life of Caligula 54
  126. ^

    J.H. Pearn, “Epilepsy and Drowning in Childhood,” British Medical Journal (1977) pp. 1510–1511.

  127. ^

    O. Temkin, The Falling Sickness (2nd ed., Baltimore 1971) 3–4, 7, 13, 16, 26, 86, 92–96, 179.

  128. ^[page needed]Suetonius : The Lives of the Twelve Caesars ; An English Translation, Augmented with the Biographies of Contemporary Statesmen, Orators, Poets, & Other Associates. Suetonius. Publishing Editor. J. Eugene Reed. Alexander Thomson. Philadelphia. Gebbie và Co. 1889 .
  129. ^R.S. Katz, ” The Illness of Caligula ” CW 65 ( 1972 ), 223 – 225 ; refuted by M.G. Morgan, ” Caligula’s Illness Again “, CW 66 ( 1973 ), 327 – 329 .
  130. ^The Comeback. Word Books, 1979. ISBN 978-0-912376-45-5Robinson, Jay .. Word Books, 1979 .
  131. ^ISBN 0963498274.Palmerini, Luca M. ; Mistretta, Gaetano ( 1996 ). ” Spaghetti Nightmares “. Fantasma Books. p. 111 .
  132. ^Sheaffer-Jones, Caroline (1 January 2012). “A Deconstructive Reading of Albert Camus’ Caligula: Justice and the Game of Calculations”. Australian Journal of French Studies. 49 (1): 31–42. doi:10.3828/AJFS.2012.3. ISSN 0004-9468.

  133. ^

    Graves, Robert I, Claudius (1934)

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