An overdate occurs when a date ( or separate of a date ) is punched into a finished work die that already has an older go steady ( normally that of the previous class ). Kevin Flynn ( in a personal communication ) estimates that there are around 200 domestic overdates, most dating from before 1850. In many cases, overdates appear to represent expedient measures taken to address a dearth of dies or to avoid the tug required to fabricate newfangled dies .
Overdates must be distinguished from Class III doubled dies, an unrelated die variety that can besides generate overlap, mismatched dates.
Among domestic coins, the conditions necessary for the production of overdates ended in 1909, when the final indian head cents were struck. This was the last issue in which the date was punched into each working die by hand .
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After that, the date was incorporated into the dominate hub or the overlord die. Mismatched, overlapping dates later than 1909 map Class III doubled dies. One of the best-known examples is the 1942/1941 Winged Liberty Head dime bag .
Winged Liberty Head dime: The Winged Liberty Head dime – popularly though erroneously known as the “Mercury dime” for Liberty’s resemblance to the fleet-footed Roman messenger god – is considered by many the most attractive U.S. 10-cent coin. How much are Winged Liberty Head dimes worth?
In assorted other countries, the practice of punching the date into each working die continued into the former twentieth hundred .
In many domestic overdates ( particularly the subsequently ones ), the earlier date appears thinner and smaller than the by and by date. This design besides applies to alien overdates, such as the 1925/1924 Switzerland 1-rappen coin and the 1900/1890 Peru half boodle shown hera. The attenuate aged go steady could theoretically result from a light lotion of each number punch ( or multi-element logo punch ). This is because, in most punches, the working end of each raised number defines a numeral that is smaller and thinner than the one defined by its broader base.
That said, it ’ mho unmanageable to come up with any scenario in which a mint proletarian would choose to tap a shallow date into the die face. Most traditional explanations alternatively see the attenuate under-date as being caused by intentional abrasion of that area of the die face. As one grinds away the alloy surrounding the recessed go steady, you finally reach the level at which the numbers are at their smallest and thinnest. After that, a newly date can be punched in .
The problem with this explanation is that such a grinding operation should create a natural depression in the die confront that would show up on the mint as a bulge. But no such elevation is ever seen .
A more extensive partition of grinding would produce a larger, more gradual, and less obvious get up in the field, but would besides result in loss and attenuation of adjacent design elements. This is besides something we don ’ triiodothyronine go steady .
indeed there must be another explanation. I sent an open-ended question to several die assortment experts, and they presented several working hypotheses that might solve this riddle. No individual hypothesis is applicable to all issues, nor would any one explanation necessarily apply to all overdates within an issue .
The Cherrypickers’ Guide to Rare Die Varieties of United States Coins ( sixth edition ) lists five strong-over-weak 1883/2 Shield 5-cent coin overdates. In addressing these coins, Bernus Turner suggests that the entire face of the working die was ground down to such an extent that only a trace of the original date was left. The nearly-featureless die was then annealed ( heat-softened ) and rehubbed with the Shield design. After that the late date was punched in over the earlier matchless. He far suggests that the scour die face was left slightly convex in order to make hubbing easier and avoid radial bellied of the die neck. In his opinion, these efforts were chiefly undertaken to salvage wear, damaged, and slenderly cracked working dies .
Since none of the Shield 5-cent mint overdates are associated with a double die, this implies that the working hub was placed perfectly over the remnants of the master design during the late hubbing .
Kevin Flynn analyzed the four strong-over-weak overdates known for the Seated Liberty half dime ( The Authoritative Reference on Liberty Seated Half Dimes, 2014 ). These overdates are restricted to the years 1848 and 1849, and in every case the final digit was punched over a 6. Flynn believes that, in each case, an 1846-dated working die was ground down ( leaving a end of the 6 ) and then rehubbed with the like invention ( sans date ). The subsequently date was then punched in by hand .
More than 25 strong-over-weak 1880/1879 overdates are known for the Morgan dollar, with the Philadelphia Mint and all three other Mint facilities represented. In his recent reference script, The Top Morgan Dollar Die Varieties ( 2015 ) : Flynn asks, “ Was the original date only struck lightly into the working die ? Did die steel displaced from the modern date being punched into the working die get pushed into the incused outer space of the original digit ? Was the face of the working die ground down to remove the remnants of the finger ? Was the incused space of the original digits filled with die sword ? Was the alloy surrounding the master digit heated in a manner to force it to flow into the incused space of the original finger ? ”
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After an exhaustive analysis, Flynn rejects all these scenarios and concludes that the huge majority of these overdates are actually Class III doubled dies. He argues that an incomplete first hubbing with an 1879-dated work hub ( one that left the peripheral details like the date watery and incomplete ) was finished up with a final hubbing using an 1880-dated ferment hub .