basic design [edit ]
obverse of a Seated Liberty Half Dime, go steady 1857 .
obverse [edit ]
The basic obverse purpose of the Seated Liberty neologism, designed by Mint engraver Christian Gobrecht and drawn by Thomas Sully, consisted of the calculate of Liberty dress in a menstruate dress and seated upon a rock. In her leave hand, she holds a familiarity pole surmounted by a phrygian ceiling, which had been a pre-eminent symbol of exemption during the movement of Neoclassicism ( and in fact traces its roots back to Ancient Greece and Rome ). Although it had fallen out of favor in Europe by 1830, Neoclassicism remained in vogue in the United States until after the American Civil War. Liberty ‘s right hand rested on the top corner of a striped shield with a diagonal standard inscribed with the son “ Liberty ”. The shield represented readiness in the defense of freedom. The date of the mint appeared on the bottom below Liberty .
reverse of the Seated Liberty Half Dime.
reverse [edit ]
The basic inverse design of Seated Liberty coins depended on the denomination. The size of half dimes and dimes necessitated a smaller array of elements. On these coins, the reverse systematically featured a wreath around the words “ half dime bag ” or “ one dime ”. Before 1860, this wreath consisted of laurel leaves, a traditional neoclassic double, but beginning that year, the wreath was enlarged and was filled not only with leaves, but besides traditional american agricultural products, such as corn and wheat. On quarter, one-half dollars, and silver dollar coins, the reverse featured a central eagle about to take flight, with a leach carapace upon its breast. The eagle clutched an olive outgrowth of peace in its right talons and a group of arrows in its leave talons. Above the eagle around the rim were the words “ United States of America ” and below the eagle around the rim lay the coin appellation. Beginning in 1866, the coins featured a decoration with the motto “ In God We Trust ” above the eagle .
Modifications [edit ]
Stars [edit ]
When the inaugural Seated Liberty half dimes and dimes appeared in 1837, the obverse contained no stars. There are two varieties ; the big date and the small date. For the dime bag, these two types can be distinguished by noting the “ 3 ” and the “ 7 ” in the date. In the big date variety show, the “ 3 ” has a pointy serif at top, and the horizontal element of the “ 7 ” is straight. In the little date kind, the “ 3 ” has a rounded serif, and there is small a knob, or bulge, in the “ 7 ” horizontal element. lone the Philadelphia Mint made both varieties. The small date is slenderly rarer. The New Orleans Mint made entirely one variety show. For the half dime bag, the small date can be distinguished by the fact that it is slightly flex in a “ smile ” orientation course, similar to the Bust character of half dime. The large date can be distinguished by the fact that the date is more in a straightaway line, like to dates of late years for the Seated Liberty. only the Philadelphia Mint made half dimes in this year. The Liberty Seated dime of 1838 minted in New Orleans, was the first U.S. mint struck anywhere outside of Philadelphia. In early words, this is the first branch mint coin. [ 1 ] The future year, the coins featured thirteen six-pointed stars around the rim, commemorating the original thirteen colonies .
curtain [edit ]
The Seated Liberty coins featured a few minor design changes over the years. Around 1840 ( the demand date depends upon the denomination ), excess drapery was added to Liberty ‘s leftover elbow .
Arrows and rays [edit ]
Liberty Seated quarter with arrows and rays. In 1853 and 1873, the U.S. Mint changed the weight of each denomination of silver coins. Both times, arrows were added to the coins on each side of the date. These were removed from coins in 1856 and 1875, respectively. In 1853, the mint besides placed rays around the eagle on the inverse of half dollars and quarters, a feature which endured for that one year entirely .
Legend and mintmarks [edit ]
1839-O Liberty Seated one-half dime with New Orleans mintmark.
In 1860 the U.S. Mint eliminated the stars on the obverse of Seated Liberty half dimes and dimes, replacing them with the caption “ United States of America ”, which had previously appeared around the wreath on the turn back of the coins. Before this time, half dimes and dimes minted in New Orleans and San Francisco had featured their mintmarks inside the wreaths. Afterwards, the “ O ” and “ S ” ( and, late, the “ CC ” for Carson City ) mintmarks were located below the wreath next to the rim. On quarters, half dollars, and silver dollars, the mintmarks were always placed below the eagle but above the coin currency on the reverse .
Varieties [edit ]
many people collect Seated neologism by kind. This can range from a repunched mintmark to the placement of a date on the mint to a die crack at diverse stages. This character of roll up has been democratic with Bust half dollars for well over 100 years. Seated coin collecting by diverseness has grown over the last 30 years with the formation of the Liberty Seated Collectors Club .
end of neologism [edit ]
The Seated Liberty design remained standard on all american coins ranging from one-half dimes to half dollars for decades, but by 1879 — the year after the Bland-Allison Act caused a drastic suppression in the mintages of Seated Liberty half dollars, quarters, and flush dimes until 1883, there was increased criticism and calls for its substitution, partially due to changing artistic tastes and perceived “ blandness ” — Wendell Phillips admonished college students to “ sit not, like the figure on our silver coin, ever looking back. ” This led to the new “ Barber Head ” plan, approved by President Harrison in 1891 and which began minting a year late, although it besides would soon be criticized for “ suavity, ” leading to the Barber coinage ‘s substitution by the Mercury dime, the Standing Liberty quarter, and the Walking Liberty half dollar, all making their introduction in 1916 ( the Mercury dime bag included the motto “ In God We Trust, ” making that motto ‘s placement on U.S. coins universal, as the motto was not on the Barber dime, due to space limitations ) .
References [edit ]
- The E-Sylum : bulk 11, Number 45, November 9, 2008, Article 9 hypertext transfer protocol : //www.coinbooks.org/esylum_v11n45a09.html
- Liberty Seated Half Dime Large Date and Small Date Varieties: A Guide Book of United States Coins, by Richard (R. S.) Yeoman, 2007, ISBN 0-7948-2039-5
- Liberty Seated Dime Large Date and small Date Varieties: Seated Coins
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