Satoshi Nakamoto – Wikipedia

Designer and developer of Bitcoin

Satoshi Nakamoto is the name used by the assume pseudonymous [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] person or persons who developed bitcoin, authored the bitcoin white paper, and created and deployed bitcoin ‘s original reference implementation. [ 5 ] As part of the implementation, Nakamoto besides devised the inaugural blockchain database. [ 6 ] Nakamoto was active voice in the exploitation of bitcoin up until December 2010. [ 7 ] many people have or have been claimed to be Nakamoto .

Development of bitcoin

Satoshi Nakamoto message embedded in the coinbase of the first block

Nakamoto stated that workplace on the writing of the code for bitcoin began in 2007. [ 8 ] On 18 August 2008, he or a colleague registered the sphere diagnose, [ 9 ] and created a network site at that address. On 31 October, Nakamoto published a white newspaper on the cryptography mailing list at describing a digital cryptocurrency, titled “ Bitcoin : A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System ”. [ 10 ] [ 11 ] [ 12 ] On 9 January 2009, Nakamoto released version 0.1 of the bitcoin software on SourceForge, and launched the network by defining the genesis block of bitcoin ( block number 0 ), which had a honor of 50 bitcoins. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 15 ] [ 16 ] Embedded in the coinbase transaction of this stuff is the text : “ The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of moment bailout for banks ”, [ 17 ] citing a headline in the UK newspaper The Times published on that date. [ 18 ] This note has been interpreted as both a timestamp and a derisive comment on the alleged instability caused by fractional-reserve bank. [ 19 ] : 18 Nakamoto continued to collaborate with other developers on the bitcoin software until mid-2010, making all modifications to the reservoir code himself. He then gave control of the source code repository and network alert key to Gavin Andresen, [ 20 ] transferred several related domains to diverse outstanding members of the bitcoin community, and stopped his recognize interest in the project. [ citation needed ] Nakamoto owns between 750,000 and 1,100,000 bitcoin. As of November 2021, that puts his net worth at up to 73 billion US dollars, which would make him the 15th-richest person in the earth. [ 21 ]

Characteristics and identity

A statue in Budapest dedicated to Satoshi Nakamoto Nakamoto has never revealed personal information when discussing technical matters, [ 22 ] though has at times supply comment on bank and fractional-reserve banking. On his P2P Foundation profile as of 2012, Nakamoto claimed to be a 37-year-old male who lived in Japan ; [ 23 ] however, some speculated he was improbable to be japanese ascribable to his native-level use of English. [ 22 ] Some have considered that Nakamoto might be a team of people : Dan Kaminsky, a security research worker who read the bitcoin code, [ 24 ] said that Nakamoto could either be a “ team of people ” or a “ genius ” ; [ 25 ] Laszlo Hanyecz, a developer who had emailed Nakamoto, had the feeling the code was besides well designed for one person ; [ 22 ] Gavin Andresen has said of Nakamoto ‘s code : “ He was a brilliant programmer, but it was far-out. ” [ 26 ] The use of british English in both source code comments and forum postings, such as the expression “ bally hard ”, terms such as “ flat “ and “ mathematics “, and the spellings “ gray ” and “ discolor ”, [ 17 ] led to speculation that Nakamoto, or at least one individual in a consortium claim to be him, was of Commonwealth beginning. [ 22 ] [ 10 ] [ 25 ] The reference to London ‘s Times newspaper in the first bitcoin block mined by Nakamoto suggested to some a particular pastime in the british government. [ 17 ] [ 27 ] : 18 Stefan Thomas, a swiss software engineer and active community penis, graphed the timestamps for each of Nakamoto ‘s bitcoin forum posts ( more than 500 ) ; the chart showed a exorbitant decline to about no posts between the hours of 5 ante meridiem and 11 a.m. Greenwich Mean Time. This was between 2 post meridiem and 8 p.m. Japan Standard Time, suggesting an strange sleep form for person purportedly living in Japan. As this practice held true even on Saturdays and Sundays, it suggested that Nakamoto systematically was asleep at this prison term. [ 22 ]

possible identities

The identity of Nakamoto is unknown, [ 28 ] but speculations have focussed on assorted cryptography and calculator science experts, largely of non-Japanese descent. [ 22 ]

Hal Finney

Hal Finney ( 4 May 1956 – 28 August 2014 ) was a pre-bitcoin cryptanalytic pioneer and the first person ( other than Nakamoto himself ) to use the software, file wiretap reports, and make improvements. [ 29 ] He besides lived a few blocks from a man named ‘Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto ‘, according to Forbes journalist Andy Greenberg. [ 30 ] Greenberg asked the spell analysis consultancy Juola & Associates to compare a sample of Finney ‘s compose to Nakamoto ‘s, and found it to be the closest resemblance they had yet come across, including when compared to candidates suggested by Newsweek, Fast Company, The New Yorker, Ted Nelson, and Skye Grey. [ 30 ] Greenberg theorized that Finney may have been a ghostwriter on behalf of Nakamoto, or that he merely used his neighbor Dorian ‘s identity as a “ drop ” or “ chump whose personal data is used to hide on-line exploits ” ; however, after meeting Finney, seeing the emails between him and Nakamoto and his bitcoin wallet ‘s history ( including the very inaugural bitcoin transaction from Nakamoto to him, which he forgot to pay back ) and hearing his abnegation, Greenberg concluded that Finney was telling the truth. Juola & Associates besides found that Nakamoto ‘s emails to Finney more close resemble Nakamoto ‘s early writings than Finney ‘s practice. Finney ‘s mate extropian and sometimes co-blogger Robin Hanson assigned a immanent probability of “ at least ” 15 % that “ Hal was more involve than he ‘s said ”, before further tell suggested that was not the case. [ 31 ]

dorian Nakamoto

dorian Nakamoto ( born Satoshi Nakamoto ), a japanese american mastermind who has long been suspected as being the founder of Bitcoin. In a high-profile 6 March 2014 article in the magazine Newsweek, [ 32 ] diarist Leah McGrath Goodman identified dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto, a japanese american man living in California, whose birth name is Satoshi Nakamoto, [ 32 ] [ 33 ] [ 34 ] as the Nakamoto in question. Besides his mention, Goodman pointed to a number of facts that by chance suggested he was the bitcoin inventor. [ 32 ] Trained as a physicist at California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, Nakamoto worked as a systems engineer on classified refutation projects and calculator engineer for engineering and fiscal data services companies. Nakamoto was laid off doubly in the early 1990s and turned libertarian according to his daughter, and encouraged her to start her own commercial enterprise “ not under the government ‘s flick. ” In the article ‘s apparently biggest piece of attest, Goodman wrote that when she asked him about bitcoin during a brief in-person interview, Nakamoto seemed to confirm his identity as the bitcoin collapse by stating : “ I am nobelium long involved in that and I can not discuss it. It ‘s been turned over to other people. They are in charge of it now. I no longer have any association. ” [ 32 ] [ 35 ] The article ‘s publication led to a flurry of media sake, including reporters camping out near dorian Nakamoto ‘s house and subtly chasing him by car when he drove to do an consultation. [ 36 ] Later that day, the pseudonymous Nakamoto ‘s P2P Foundation report posted its first gear message in five years, submit : “ I am not dorian Nakamoto. ” [ 37 ] [ 38 ] During the subsequent full-length interview, Dorian Nakamoto denied all connection to bitcoin, saying he had never heard of the currency before, and that he had misinterpreted Goodman ‘s motion as being about his previous function for military contractors, much of which was classified. [ 39 ] In a Reddit “ ask-me-anything ” interview, he claimed he had misinterpreted Goodman ‘s interrogate as being related to his shape for Citibank. [ 40 ] In September, the P2P Foundation account posted another message saying it had been hacked, raising questions over the authenticity of the message six months in the first place. [ 41 ] [ 42 ]

Nick Szabo

In December 2013, blogger Skye Grey linked Nick Szabo to the bitcoin white newspaper using an approach he described as stylometric psychoanalysis. [ 43 ] [ 44 ] [ 45 ] Szabo is a decentralized currency enthusiast, and had published a newspaper on “ piece gold ”, one of the precursors of bitcoin. He is known to have been concerned in using pseudonym in the 1990s. [ 46 ] In a May 2011 article, Szabo stated about the bitcoin godhead : “ Myself, Wei Dai, and Hal Finney were the lone people I know of who liked the idea ( or in Dai ‘s case his relate idea ) adequate to pursue it to any significant extent until Nakamoto ( assuming Nakamoto is not very Finney or Dai ). ” [ 47 ] fiscal generator Dominic Frisby provides much circumstantial attest but, as he admits, no proof that Nakamoto is Szabo. [ 48 ] Szabo has denied being Nakamoto. In a July 2014 electronic mail to Frisby, he said : “ Thanks for letting me know. I ‘m afraid you got it amiss doxing me as Satoshi, but I ‘m used to it. ” [ 49 ] Nathaniel Popper wrote in The New York Times that “ the most convert testify pointed to a cloistered american homo of hungarian origin named Nick Szabo. ” [ 50 ]

Craig Wright

On 8 December 2015, Wired wrote that Craig Steven Wright, an australian academic, “ either invent bitcoin or is a brainy prankster who identical badly wants us to believe he did ”. [ 51 ] Craig Wright took down his chirrup explanation and neither he nor his ex-wife responded to press inquiries. The like day, Gizmodo published a report with evidence purportedly obtained by a hack who broke into Wright ‘s e-mail accounts, claiming that Satoshi Nakamoto was a joint pseudonym for Craig Steven Wright and calculator forensics analyst David Kleiman, who died in 2013. [ 52 ] Wright ‘s claim was supported by Jon Matonis ( former director of the Bitcoin Foundation ) and bitcoin developer Gavin Andresen. [ 53 ] A number of big bitcoin promoters remained unconvinced by the reports. [ 54 ] Subsequent reports besides raised the possibility that the evidence provided was an elaborate hoax, [ 55 ] [ 56 ] which Wired acknowledged “ cast doubt ” on their suggestion that Wright was Nakamoto. [ 57 ] Bitcoin developer Peter Todd said that Wright ‘s blog station, which appeared to contain cryptanalytic proof, actually contained nothing of the sort. [ 58 ] Bitcoin developer Jeff Garzik agreed that evidence publicly provided by Wright does not prove anything, and security research worker Dan Kaminsky concluded Wright ‘s call was “ intentional scammery ”. [ 59 ] In May 2019, Wright started using English libel law to sue people who denied he was the inventor of bitcoin, and who called him a fraud. [ 60 ] In 2019 Wright registered US copyright for the bitcoin white wallpaper and the code for Bitcoin 0.1. [ 61 ] Wright ‘s team claimed this was “ government representation recognition of Craig Wright as Satoshi Nakamoto ” ; [ 62 ] the United States Copyright Office issued a press release clarifying that this was not the case ( as they chiefly determine whether a knead is eligible for copyright, and do not investigate legal ownership, which, if disputed, is determined by the courts ). [ 63 ]

Len Sassaman memorial on Bitcoin blockchain In a 2011 article in The New Yorker, Joshua Davis claimed to have narrowed down the identity of Nakamoto to a issue of possible individuals, including the finnish economic sociologist Dr. Vili Lehdonvirta and Irish student Michael Clear, who was in 2008 an undergraduate student in cryptography at Trinity College Dublin. [ 64 ] Clear strongly denied he was Nakamoto, [ 65 ] as did Lehdonvirta. [ 64 ] In October 2011, writing for Fast Company, fact-finding journalist Adam Penenberg cited circumstantial evidence suggesting Neal King, Vladimir Oksman and Charles Bry could be Nakamoto. [ 66 ] They jointly filed a patent application that contained the phrase “ computationally airy to reverse ” in 2008, which was besides used in the bitcoin white paper by Nakamoto. [ 67 ] The domain name was registered three days after the patent was filed. All three men denied being Nakamoto when contacted by Penenberg. [ 66 ] In May 2013, Ted Nelson speculated that Nakamoto was japanese mathematician Shinichi Mochizuki. [ 68 ] Later, an article was published in The Age newspaper that claimed that Mochizuki denied these speculations, but without attributing a source for the abnegation. [ 69 ] A 2013 article in Vice listed Gavin Andresen, Jed McCaleb, or a government means as possible candidates to be Nakamoto. [ 70 ] In 2013, two israeli mathematicians, Dorit Ron and Adi Shamir, published a newspaper claiming a link between Nakamoto and Ross Ulbricht. The two based their suspicion on an analysis of the net of bitcoin transactions, [ 71 ] but later retracted their claim. [ 72 ] In 2016, the Financial Times said that Nakamoto might have been a group of people, mentioning Hal Finney, Nick Szabo and Adam Back as electric potential members. [ 73 ] In 2020, the YouTube groove Barely Sociable claimed that Adam Back, inventor of bitcoin harbinger Hashcash, is Nakamoto. [ 74 ] Back subsequently denied this. [ 75 ] Elon Musk denied he was Nakamoto in a tweet on 28 November 2017, responding to speculation the previous week in a military post by a former SpaceX intern. [ 76 ] In 2019, journalist Evan Ratliff claimed drug trader Paul Le Roux could be Nakamoto. [ 77 ] In 2021 developer Evan Hatch proposed cypherpunk Len Sassaman of COSIC as a potential campaigner. [ 78 ]


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