Americas – Wikipedia

Landmass comprising the totality of North and South America
“ The Americas ” redirects here. For the academic journal, see The Americas ( daybook ) Coordinates :
The Americas, which are sometimes jointly called America, [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] are a landmass comprising the entirety of North and South America. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ] The Americas make up most of the land in Earth ‘s Western Hemisphere and comprise the New World. [ 3 ]

Along with their associate islands, the Americas blanket 8 % of Earth ‘s sum come on area and 28.4 % of its down sphere. The topography is dominated by the American Cordillera, a long chain of mountains that runs the length of the west coast. The flat eastern side of the Americas is dominated by large river basins, such as the Amazon, St. Lawrence River – Great Lakes basin, Mississippi, and La Plata. Since the Americas extend 14,000 kilometer ( 8,700 mile ) from north to south, the climate and ecology vary wide, from the north-polar tundra of Northern Canada, Greenland, and Alaska, to the tropical rain forests in Central America and South America. Humans first settled the Americas from Asia between 42,000 and 17,000 years ago. A second migration of Na-Dene speakers followed former from Asia. The subsequent migration of the Inuit into the neoarctic around 3500 BCE completed what is generally regarded as the colonization by the autochthonal peoples of the Americas. The beginning known european liquidation in the Americas was by the Norse explorer Leif Erikson. [ 9 ] however, the colonization never became permanent and was later abandoned. The spanish voyages of Christopher Columbus from 1492 to 1504 resulted in permanent liaison with European ( and subsequently, other Old World ) powers, which finally led to the columbian exchange and inaugurated a period of exploration, conquest, and colonization whose effects and consequences persist to the show. The spanish presence involved the enslavement of big numbers of the autochthonal population of America. [ 10 ] Diseases introduced from Europe and West Africa devastated the autochthonal peoples, and the european powers colonized the Americas. [ 11 ] Mass emigration from Europe, including large numbers of indenture servants, and importing of african slaves largely replaced the autochthonal peoples. decolonization of the Americas began with the american Revolution in the 1770s and largely ended with the Spanish–American War in the late 1890s. presently, about all of the population of the Americas resides in independent countries ; however, the bequest of the colonization and settlement by Europeans is that the Americas parcel many common cultural traits, most notably Christianity and the manipulation of west european languages : primarily Spanish, English, Portuguese, French, and, to a lesser extent, Dutch. The Americas are home to about a billion inhabitants, two-thirds of whom reside in the United States, Brazil, and Mexico. It is home to eight megacities ( metropolitan areas with ten million inhabitants or more ) : New York City ( 23.9 million ), Metropolitan area of the Valley of Mexico ( 21.2 million ), São Paulo ( 21.2 million ), Los Angeles ( 18.8 million ), Buenos Aires ( 15.6 million ), [ 12 ] Rio de Janeiro ( 13.0 million ), Bogotá ( 10.4 million ), and Lima ( 10.1 million ) .

Etymology and naming

The name “ America ” was first recorded in 1507. A planar ball created by Martin Waldseemüller was the earliest recorded practice of the term. [ 14 ] The diagnose was besides used ( together with the related term Amerigen ) in the Cosmographiae Introductio, obviously written by Matthias Ringmann, in reference to South America. [ 15 ] It was applied to both North and South America by Gerardus Mercator in 1538. “ America ” derives from Americus, the Latin version of italian internet explorer Amerigo Vespucci ‘s beginning name. The feminine form America accorded with the womanly names of Asia, Africa, and Europa. [ 16 ] In modern English, North and South America are generally considered separate continents, and taken together are called the Americas, or more rarely America. [ 17 ] [ 18 ] [ 3 ] When conceived as a unitary continent, the shape is broadly the continent of America in the singular. however, without a clarify context, singular America in English normally refers to the United States of America. [ 3 ]


pre-columbian era

Honduras The Plaza Occidental in Copán The pre-columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of meaning european influences on the american continents, spanning the prison term of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic to European colonization during the early Modern period. The term Pre-Columbian is used particularly frequently in the context of the big autochthonal civilizations of the Americas, such as those of Mesoamerica ( the Olmec, the Toltec, the Teotihuacano, the Zapotec, the Mixtec, the Aztec, and the Maya ) and the Andes ( Inca, Moche, Muisca, Cañaris ). many pre-columbian civilizations established characteristics and hallmarks which included permanent wave or urban settlements, department of agriculture, civic and massive architecture, and complex social hierarchies. Some of these civilizations had long faded by the time of the first permanent wave european arrivals ( c. late 15th–early 16th centuries ), and are known merely through archaeological investigations. Others were contemporary with this time period, and are besides known from diachronic accounts of the time. A few, such as the Maya, had their own written records. however, most Europeans of the time viewed such texts as heathen, and much was destroyed in christian pyres. alone a few hidden documents remain nowadays, leaving modern historians with glimpses of ancient culture and cognition. [ 19 ]


promote information on theories of paleo-american migration : liquidation of the Americas The first inhabitants migrated into the Americas from Asia. Habitation sites are known in Alaska and the yukon from at least 20,000 years ago, with suggest ages of up to 40,000 years. [ 21 ] [ 22 ] [ 23 ] Beyond that, the specifics of the paleo-american migration to and throughout the Americas, including the dates and routes traveled, are national to ongoing inquiry and discussion. [ 24 ] widespread inhabitancy of the Americas occurred during the late glacial maximum, from 16,000 to 13,000 years ago. [ 23 ] [ 25 ]
The traditional theory has been that these early migrants moved into the Beringia bring bridge between easterly Siberia and contemporary Alaska around 40,000–17,000 years ago, [ 26 ] when sea levels were significantly lowered during the Quaternary glaciation. [ 24 ] [ 27 ] These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. [ 28 ] Another route proposed is that, either on foot or using primitive boats, they migrated down the Pacific coast to South America. [ 29 ] testify of the latter would since have been covered by a sea level lift of hundreds of meters following the last ice age. [ 30 ] Both routes may have been taken, although the genic evidences suggests a single establish population. [ 31 ] The micro-satellite diversity and distributions specific to South American Indigenous people indicates that certain populations have been isolated since the initial colonization of the area. [ 32 ] A moment migration occurred after the initial people of the Americas ; [ 33 ] Na Dene speakers found predominantly in north american english groups at varying familial rates with the highest frequency found among the Athabaskans at 42 % derive from this second wave. [ 34 ] Linguists and biologists have reached a exchangeable conclusion based on analysis of amerindian linguistic process groups and ABO rake group system distributions. [ 33 ] [ 35 ] [ 36 ] [ 37 ] then the people of the Arctic modest creature tradition, a broad cultural entity that developed along the Alaska Peninsula, around Bristol Bay, and on the eastern shores of the Bering Strait c. 2,500 BCE moved into North America. [ 38 ] The Arctic small tool tradition, a Paleo-Eskimo culture branched off into two cultural variants, including the Pre-Dorset, and the Independence traditions of Greenland. [ 39 ] The descendants of the Pre-Dorset cultural group, the Dorset culture was displaced by the final migrants from the Bering sea coast line, the ancestors of modern Inuit, the Thule people, by 1000 Common Era ( CE ). [ 39 ]

Norse colonization

Around the same time as the Inuit migrated into Greenland, Viking settlers began arriving in Greenland in 982 and Vinland soon thereafter, establishing a colonization at L’Anse aux Meadows, near the northernmost lean of Newfoundland. [ 40 ] Contact between the Norse colonies and Europe was maintained, as James Watson Curran points out :

From 985 to 1410, Greenland was in touch with the world. then silence. In 1492 the Vatican noted that no news of that nation “ at the conclusion of the earth ” had been received for 80 years, and the diocese of the colony was offered to a certain ecclesiastical if he would go and “ restore Christianity ” there. He did n’t go. [ 41 ]

large-scale european colonization

Although there had been previous trans-oceanic contact, large-scale european colonization of the Americas began with the first voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1492. The first spanish colonization in the Americas was La Isabela in northern Hispaniola. This township was abandoned shortly after in prefer of Santo Domingo de Guzmán, founded in 1496, the oldest american city of european foundation. This was the al-qaeda from which the spanish monarchy administered its new colonies and their expansion. Santo Domingo was subjugate to frequent raids by English and french pirates. During most of the eighteenth century, however, privateers from Santo Domingo were the bane of the Antilles, with Dutch, British, French and Danish vessels as their prizes. [ 42 ] On the celibate, Panama City on the Pacific coast of Central America, founded on August 15, 1519, played an authoritative function, being the basis for the spanish seduction of South America. Conquistador Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón established San Miguel de Guadalupe, the first european settlement in what is immediately the United States, on the Pee Dee River in South Carolina. [ 43 ] During the first gear half of the sixteenth century, spanish colonists conducted raids throughout the Caribbean Basin, bringing captives from Central America, northerly South America, and Florida back to Hispaniola and other spanish settlements. [ 44 ] France, led by Jacques Cartier and Giovanni da Verrazano, [ 45 ] focused chiefly on North America. english explorations of the Americas were led by Giovanni Caboto [ 46 ] and Sir Walter Raleigh. The Dutch in New Netherland confined their operations to Manhattan Island, Long Island, the Hudson River Valley, and what late became New Jersey. The spread of new diseases brought by Europeans and African slaves killed many of the inhabitants of North America and South America, [ 47 ] [ 48 ] with a general population crash of native Americans occurring in the mid-16th hundred, frequently well ahead of european contact. [ 49 ] One of the most crushing diseases was smallpox. [ 50 ] european immigrants were much region of state-sponsored attempts to found colonies in the Americas. Migration continued as people moved to the Americas fleeing religious persecution or seeking economic opportunities. Millions of individuals were forcibly transported to the Americas as slaves, prisoners or indenture servants .
Map showing the dates of independence from european powers. Black signifies areas that are dependent territories or parts of countries with a capital outside the Americas. decolonization of the Americas began with the american Revolution and the haitian Revolution in the former 1700s. This was followed by numerous romance american english wars of independence in the early on 1800s. between 1811 and 1825, Paraguay, Argentina, Chile, Gran Colombia, the United Provinces of Central America, Mexico, Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia gained independence from Spain and Portugal in arm revolutions. After the Dominican Republic won independence from Haiti, it was re-annexed by Spain in 1861, but reclaimed its independence in 1865 at the ending of the Dominican Restoration War. The last fierce episode of decolonization was the Cuban War of Independence which became the Spanish–American War, which resulted in the independence of Cuba in 1898, and the transfer of sovereignty over Puerto Rico from Spain to the United States. peaceful decolonization began with the buy by the United States of Louisiana from France in 1803, Florida from Spain in 1819, of Alaska from Russia in 1867, and the danish West Indies from Denmark in 1916. Canada became autonomous of the United Kingdom, starting with the Balfour Declaration of 1926, Statute of Westminster 1931, and ending with the patriation of the canadian Constitution in 1982. The dominion of Newfoundland similarly achieved partial derivative independence under the Balfour Declaration and Statute of Westminster, but was re-absorbed into the United Kingdom in 1934. It was subsequently confederated with Canada in 1949. The remaining european colonies in the Caribbean began to achieve peaceful independence well after World War II. Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago became freelancer in 1962, and Guyana and Barbados both achieved independence in 1966. In the 1970s, the Bahamas, Grenada, Dominica, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines all became independent of the United Kingdom, and Suriname became mugwump of the Netherlands. Belize, Antigua and Barbuda, and Saint Kitts and Nevis achieved independence from the United Kingdom in the 1980s .


Satellite photograph of the Americas on Earth


The Americas make up most of the country in Earth ‘s Western Hemisphere. [ 51 ] The northernmost point of the Americas is Kaffeklubben Island, which is the most north wind distributor point of farming on Earth. [ 52 ] The southernmost point is the islands of Southern Thule, although they are sometimes considered part of Antarctica. [ 53 ] The mainland of the Americas is the world ‘s longest north-to-south landmass. The distance between its two polar extremities, Murchison Promontory on the Boothia Peninsula in northern Canada and Cape Froward in Chilean Patagonia, is approximately 14,000 km ( 8,700 security service ). [ 54 ] The mainland ‘s most westerly point is the end of the Seward Peninsula in Alaska ; Attu Island, far off the Alaskan coast to the west, is considered the westernmost point of the Americas. Ponta do Seixas in northeastern Brazil forms the easternmost extremity of the mainland, [ 54 ] while Nordostrundingen, in Greenland, is the most easterly point of the continental ledge .


South America broke off from the west of the supercontinent Gondwana around 135 million years ago, forming its own continent. [ 55 ] Around 15 million years ago, the collision of the Caribbean Plate and the Pacific Plate resulted in the emergence of a series of volcanoes along the margin that created a numeral of islands. The gaps in the archipelago of Central America filled in with material eroded off North America and South America, plus new land created by continue volcanism. By three million years ago, the continents of North America and South America were linked by the Isthmus of Panama, thereby forming the individual landmass of the Americas. [ 56 ] The great american Interchange resulted in many species being spread across the Americas, such as the cougar, porcupine, opossums, armadillo and hummingbirds. [ 57 ]


Aconcagua, in Argentina, is the highest peak in the Americas The geography of the western Americas is dominated by the American Cordillera, with the Andes tend along the west slide of South America [ 58 ] and the Rocky Mountains and other north american Cordillera ranges running along the western slope of North America. [ 59 ] The 2,300-kilometer-long ( 1,400 michigan ) Appalachian Mountains run along the east slide of North America from Alabama to Newfoundland. [ 60 ] North of the Appalachians, the Arctic Cordillera runs along the eastern coast of Canada. [ 61 ] The largest mountain ranges are the Andes and Rocky Mountains. The Sierra Nevada and the Cascade Range reach similar altitudes as the Rocky Mountains, but are significantly smaller. In North America, the greatest act of fourteeners are in the United States, and more specifically in the U.S. state of Colorado. The highest peaks of the Americas are located in the Andes, with Aconcagua of Argentina being the highest ; in North America Denali ( Mount McKinley ) in the U.S. department of state of Alaska is the tall. Between its coastal batch ranges, North America has vast apartment areas. The Interior Plains spread complete much of the celibate, with moo relief. [ 62 ] The canadian Shield covers about 5 million km2 of North America and is broadly quite bland. [ 63 ] Similarly, the northeast of South America is covered by the flat Amazon washbasin. [ 64 ] The brazilian Highlands on the east seashore are fairly smooth but show some variations in landform, while farther south the Gran Chaco and Pampas are across-the-board lowlands. [ 65 ]


The climate of the Americas varies significantly from region to region. tropical rain forest climate occurs in the latitudes of the Amazon, American defile forests, southeastern Florida and Darién Gap. In the Rocky Mountains and Andes, dry and continental climates are observed. Often the higher altitudes of these mountains are snow-capped. Southeastern North America is well known for its occurrence of tornadoes and hurricanes, of which the huge majority of tornadoes occur in the United States ‘ Tornado Alley, [ 66 ] vitamin a well as in the south wind Dixie Alley in the north american late-winter and early spring seasons. Often parts of the Caribbean are exposed to the crimson effects of hurricanes. These weather systems are formed by the collision of dry, cool air from Canada and wet, warm tune from the Atlantic .


With coastal mountains and home plains, the Americas have respective boastfully river basins that drain the continents. The largest river river basin in North America is that of the Mississippi, covering the second largest watershed on the satellite. [ 67 ] The Mississippi-Missouri river system drains most of 31 states of the U.S., most of the Great Plains, and large areas between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains. This river is the fourthly longest in the world and tenth most brawny in the worldly concern. In North America, to the east of the appalachian Mountains, there are no major rivers but quite a series of rivers and streams that flow east with their destination in the Atlantic Ocean, such as the Hudson River, Saint John River, and Savannah River. A similar example arises with central canadian rivers that drain into Hudson Bay ; the largest being the Churchill River. On the west coast of North America, the chief rivers are the Colorado River, Columbia River, Yukon River, Fraser River, and Sacramento River. The Colorado River drains much of the Southern Rockies and parts of the Basin and Range Province. The river flows approximately 1,450 miles ( 2,330 kilometer ) into the Gulf of California, [ 68 ] during which over time it has carved out natural phenomena such as the Grand Canyon and created phenomena such as the Salton Sea. The Columbia is a large river, 1,243 miles ( 2,000 km ) farseeing, in central western North America and is the most herculean river on the West Coast of the Americas. In the far northwest of North America, the Yukon drains much of the Alaskan peninsula and flows 1,980 miles ( 3,190 kilometer ) [ 69 ] from parts of Yukon and the Northwest district to the Pacific. Draining to the Arctic Ocean of Canada, the Mackenzie River drains waters from the Arctic Great Lakes of Arctic Canada, as opposed to the Saint-Lawrence River that drains the Great Lakes of Southern Canada into the Atlantic Ocean. The Mackenzie River is the largest in Canada and drains 1,805,200 square kilometers ( 697,000 sq nautical mile ). [ 70 ] The largest river basin in South America is that of the Amazon, which has the highest volume flow of any river on Earth. [ 71 ] The second largest watershed of South America is that of the Paraná River, which covers about 2.5 million km2. [ 72 ]


North America and South America began to develop a share population of flora and fauna around 2.5 million years ago, when continental drift brought the two continents into touch via the Isthmus of Panama. Initially, the switch over of biota was roughly equal, with north american genus migrating into South America in about the lapp proportions as south american genus migrated into North America. This rally is known as the big american Interchange. The change became lopsided after roughly a million years, with the total bedspread of south american english genus into North America far more limited in setting than the spread on north american english genus into South America. [ 73 ]

Countries and territories

There are 35 sovereign states in the Americas, equally well as an autonomous country of Denmark, three overseas departments of France, three oversea collectivities of France, [ 74 ] and one uninhabited territory of France, eight oversea territories of the United Kingdom, three constituent countries of the Netherlands, three public bodies of the Netherlands, two unincorporated territories of the United States, and one uninhabited territory of the United States. [ 75 ]



In 2021 the sum population of the Americas was about 1.03 billion people, divided as follows : [ note 1 ] [ 98 ]

  • North America: 596.6 million (includes Central America and the Caribbean)
  • South America: 434.3 million

Largest urban centers

There are three urban centers that each hold titles for being the largest population sphere based on the three chief demographic concepts : [ 99 ]

A city proper is the locality with legally fixed boundaries and an administratively recognized urban status that is usually characterized by some form of local government.[100][101][102][103][104]
An urban area is characterized by higher population density and vast human features in comparison to areas surrounding it. Urban areas may be cities, towns or conurbations, but the term is not commonly extended to rural settlements such as villages and hamlets. Urban areas are created and further developed by the process of urbanization and do not include large swaths of rural land, as do metropolitan areas.[ citation needed]
Unlike an urban area, a metropolitan area includes not only the urban area, but also satellite cities plus intervening rural land that is socio-economically connected to the urban core city, typically by employment ties through commuting, with the urban core city being the primary labor market.[ citation needed]

In accord with these definitions, the three largest population centers in the Americas are : Mexico City, anchor to the largest metropolitan area in the Americas ; New York City, anchor to the largest urban area in the Americas ; and São Paulo, the largest city proper in the Americas. All three cities maintain Alpha classification and large scale influence .


The population of the Americas is made up of the descendants of four bombastic cultural groups and their combinations .
The majority of the population live in Latin America, named for its prevailing cultures, rooted in Latin Europe ( including the two dominant languages, spanish and portuguese, both Romance languages ), more specifically in the iberian nations of Portugal and Spain ( hence the use of the terminus Ibero-America as a synonym ). Latin America is typically contrasted with Anglo-America, where English, a Germanic lyric, is prevailing, and which comprises Canada ( with the exception of francophone Canada rooted in Latin Europe [ France ] —see Québec and Acadia ) and the United States. Both countries are located in North America, with cultures deriving predominantly from Anglo-Saxon and early Germanic roots .


The most prevailing faiths in the Americas are as follows :

  • Christianity (86 percent)[113]
    • Roman Catholicism: Practiced by 69 percent[114] of the Latin American population (61 percent[114] in Brazil whose Roman Catholic population of 134 million[115] is the greatest of any nation’s), approximately 24 percent of the United States’ population[116] and about 39 percent of Canada’s.[117]
    • Protestantism: Practiced mostly in the United States, where half of the population are Protestant, Canada, with slightly more than a quarter of the population, and Greenland; there is a growing contingent of Evangelical and Pentecostal movements in predominantly Catholic Latin America.[118]
    • Eastern Orthodoxy: Found mostly in the United States (1 percent) and Canada; this Christian group is growing faster than many other Christian groups in Canada and now represents roughly 3 percent of the Canadian population.[117]
    • Non-denominational Christians and other Christians (some 1,000 different Christian denominations and sects practiced in the Americas).
  • Irreligion: About 12 percent, including atheists and agnostics, as well as those who profess some form of spirituality but do not identify themselves as members of any organized religion.
  • Islam: Together, Muslims constitute about 1 percent of the North American population and 0.3 percent of all Latin Americans. It is practiced by 3 percent [117] of Canadians and 0.6 percent of the U.S. population.[116] Argentina has the largest Muslim population in Latin America with up to 600,000 persons, or 1.5 percent of the population.[119]
  • Judaism (practiced by 2 percent of North Americans—approximately 2.5 percent of the U.S. population and 1.2 percent of Canadians[120]—and 0.23 percent of Latin Americans—Argentina has the largest Jewish population in Latin America with 200,000 members)[121]

other faiths include Buddhism ; Hinduism ; Sikhism ; Baháʼí Faith ; a wide diverseness of autochthonal religions, many of which can be categorized as animist ; new historic period religions and many African and African-derived religions. syncretic faiths can besides be found throughout the Americas .

Religious Demographics According to 2010 censuses/estimates in each country
Country Christians Catholics Protestants None/Atheists/Agnostics Others
Argentina[122] 86.2% 76.5% 9.7% 11.3% 2.5%
Bolivia 95.3% 73.7% 21.6% 3.7% 1.0%
Brazil[123] 86.8% 64.6% 22.2% 8.4% 4.8%
Canada[117] 62.6% 38.7% 23.9% 28.5% 8.9%
Chile[124] 76.0% 60.0% 16.0% 21.0% 3.0%
Colombia[125] 93.9% 80.3% 13.6% 5.2% 1.7%
Costa Rica[126] 84.3% 70.5% 13.8% 11.3% 4.3%
Dominican Republic[127] 87.1% 68.3% 18.8% 10.6% 2.2%
Ecuador[128] 95.6% 87.8% 7.7% 3.5% 1.0%
El Salvador[129] 75.5% 45.8% 29.7% 24.3% 1.2%
Guatemala[130] 79.3% 47.6% 31.7% 18.3% 2.4%
Honduras[131] 83.0% 47.9% 35.1% 14.3% 2.7%
Mexico[132] 92.2% 82.7% 8.7% 4.9% 2.9%
Nicaragua[133] 81.1% 54.3% 26.8% 16.8% 2.1%
Panama 90.0% 75.0% 15.0% 7.0% 3.0%
Paraguay 96.8% 90.4% 6.4% 1.4% 1.8%
Peru[134] 96.7% 81.3% 12.5% 1.9% 1.4%
United States[135] 79.9% 25.9% 54.0% 15.2% 5.0%
Uruguay[136] 58.2% 47.1% 11.1% 40.4% 1.5%
Venezuela[137] 89.0% 72.0% 17.0% 8.0% 3.0%


Languages spoken in the united states assorted languages are spoken in the Americas. Some are of european origin, others are spoken by autochthonal peoples or are the mixture of assorted languages like the different creoles. [ 126 ] The most widely talk language in the Americas is spanish. [ 138 ] The prevailing lyric of Latin America is spanish, though the most populous state in Latin America, Brazil, speaks Portuguese. Small enclaves of French -, Dutch – and english -speaking regions besides exist in Latin America, notably in french Guiana, Suriname, and Belize and Guyana respectively. haitian Creole is dominant in the nation of Haiti, where french is besides spoken. native languages are more outstanding in Latin America than in Anglo-America, with Nahuatl, Quechua, Aymara and Guaraní as the most common. assorted early native languages are spoken with less frequency across both Anglo-America and Latin America. Creole languages other than haitian Creole are besides spoken in parts of Latin America. The dominant allele speech of Anglo-America is English. french is besides official in Canada, where it is the prevailing lyric in Quebec and an official terminology in New Brunswick along with English. It is besides an important linguistic process in Louisiana, and in parts of New Hampshire, Maine, and Vermont. spanish has kept an ongoing presence in the Southwestern United States, which formed part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, particularly in California and New Mexico, where a distinct assortment of spanish spoken since the seventeenth century has survived. It has more recently become wide spoken in other parts of the United States because of heavy immigration from Latin America. High levels of immigration in general have brought big linguistic diversity to Anglo-America, with over 300 languages known to be spoken in the United States alone, but most languages are spoken only in small enclaves and by relatively small immigrant groups. The nations of Guyana, Suriname, and Belize are broadly considered [ by whom? ] not to fall into either Anglo-America or Latin America because of their speech differences from Latin America, geographic differences from Anglo-America, and cultural and historical differences from both regions ; English is the elementary linguistic process of Guyana and Belize, and Dutch is the basal terminology of Suriname. Most of the non-native languages have, to different degrees, evolved differently from the beget country, but are normally hush mutually intelligible. Some have combined, however, which has even resulted in completely new languages, such as Papiamento, which is a combination of Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch ( representing the respective colonizers ), native Arawak, respective african languages, and, more recently English. The tongue franca Portuñol, a mix of Portuguese and Spanish, is spoken in the surround regions of Brazil and neighboring spanish-speaking countries. [ 139 ] More specifically, Riverense Portuñol is spoken by around 100,000 people in the border regions of Brazil and Uruguay. Because of immigration, there are many communities where other languages are spoken from all parts of the world, specially in the United States, Brazil, Argentina, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica and Uruguay—very authoritative destinations for immigrants. [ 140 ] [ 141 ] [ 142 ]


Subdivisions of the Americas
Map Legend


North America ( NA )


South America ( SA )


May be included in


either NA or SA



North America ( NA )


May be included in NA


Central America




South America



North America ( NA )


May be included in NA
Northern America


Middle America ( MA )


Caribbean ( may be


included in MA)


South America ( SA )


May be included


in MA or SA



Anglo-America ( A-A )


May be included in A-A


Latin America ( LA )


May be included in LA


Speakers of English broadly refer to the landmasses of North America and South America as the Americas, the Western Hemisphere, or the New World. [ 4 ] The adjective American may be used to indicate something pertains to the Americas, [ 1 ] but this term is chiefly used in English to indicate something pertaining to the United States. [ 1 ] [ 143 ] [ 144 ] Some non-ambiguous alternatives exist, such as the adjective Pan-American, [ 145 ] or New Worlder as a demonym for a house physician of the closely associate New World. [ 2 ] Use of America in the hemispherical feel is sometimes retained, or can occur when translated from other languages. [ 146 ] For example, the Association of National Olympic Committees ( ANOC ) in Paris maintains a individual continental affiliation for “ America ”, represented by one of the five Olympic rings. [ 147 ] American essayist H.L. Mencken said, “ The Latin-Americans use Norteamericano in courtly writing, but, save in Panama, prefer nicknames in colloquial speech. ” [ 148 ] To avoid “ American ” one can use construct terms in their languages derived from “ United States ” or even “ North America ”. [ 144 ] [ 149 ] [ 150 ] In Canada, its southern neighbor is frequently referred to as “ the United States ”, “ the U.S.A. ”, or ( colloquially ) “ the States ”, while U.S. citizens are generally referred to as “ Americans ”. [ 144 ] Most Canadians resent being referred to as “ Americans ”. [ 144 ]


In spanish, América is a single continent composed of the subcontinents of América del Sur and América del Norte, the farming bridge of América Central, and the islands of the Antillas. Americano or americana in spanish refers to a person from América in a similar way that in which europeo or europea refers to a person from Europa. The terms sudamericano/a, centroamericano/a, antillano/a and norteamericano/a can be used to more specifically refer to the location where a person may live. Citizens of the United States of America are normally referred to by the term estadounidense ( rough literal translation : “ United Statesian “ ) rather of americano or americana which is discouraged, [ 151 ] [ 152 ] and the country ‘s identify itself is officially translated as Estados Unidos de América ( United States of America ), normally abbreviated as Estados Unidos ( EEUU ). [ 152 ] besides, the term norteamericano ( union American ) may refer to a citizen of the United States. This terminus is primarily used to refer to citizens of the United States, and less normally to those of early north american english countries. [ 151 ]


In Portuguese, América [ 153 ] is a single continent composed of América do Sul ( South America ), América Central ( Central America ) and América do Norte ( North America ). [ 154 ] It can be ambiguous, as América can be used to refer to the United States of America, but is avoided in print and ball environments. [ 155 ] [ 156 ]


In French the give voice américain may be used for things relating to the Americas ; however, similar to English, it is most much used for things relating to the United States, with the condition états-unien sometimes used for clearness. Panaméricain may be used as an adjective to refer to the Americas without ambiguity. [ 157 ] french speakers may use the noun Amérique to refer to the unharmed landmass as one continent, or two continents, Amérique du Nord and Amérique du Sud. In french, Amérique is rarely used to refer to the United States, leading to some ambiguity when it is. exchangeable to english use, les Amériques or des Amériques is used to refer unambiguously to the Americas .


In Dutch, the give voice Amerika by and large refers to the United States. [ 158 ] [ 159 ] Although the United States is evenly much referred to as de Verenigde Staten ( “ the United States ” ) or de VS ( “ the US ” ), Amerika relatively rarely refers to the Americas, but it is the only normally used Dutch son for the Americas. This often leads to ambiguity ; and to stress that something concerns the Americas as a hale, Dutch uses a combination, namely Noord- en Zuid-Amerika ( North and South America ). Latin America and Central America are broadly referred to as Latijns Amerika and Midden-Amerika respectively. The adjective Amerikaans is most often used for things or people relating to the United States. There are no alternative words to distinguish between things relating to the United States or to the Americas. Dutch uses the local alternate for things relating to elsewhere in the Americas, such as Argentijns for Argentine, etc .

multinational organizations

The come is a list of multinational organizations in the Americas .


Rank Country GDP (nominal, peak year)
millions of USD[160]
Peak year
1  United States 25,346,805 2022
2  Brazil 2,614,027 2011
3  Canada 2,221,218 2022
4  Mexico 1,322,740 2022
5  Argentina 643,861 2017
6  Colombia 382,094 2013
7  Venezuela 352,540 2011
8  Chile 317,594 2022
9  Peru 240,346 2022
10  Puerto Rico 116,762 2022
Rank Country GDP (PPP, peak year)
millions of USD
Peak year
1  United States 25,346,805 2022
2  Brazil 3,680,942 2022
3  Mexico 2,890,685 2022
4  Canada 2,236,928 2022
5  Argentina 1,195,581 2022
6  Colombia 940,589 2022
7  Chile 568,319 2022
8  Venezuela 561,817 2013
9  Peru 513,715 2022
10  Dominican Republic 254,992 2022

In exports and imports, in 2020, the United States was the worldly concern ‘s second largest exporter ( US $ 1.64 trillion ) and the largest importer ( US $ 2.56 trillion ). Mexico was the tenth largest exporter and importer. Canada was the twelfth largest exporter and importer. Brazil was the 24th largest exporter and the 28th largest importer. Chile was the 45th largest exporter and the 47th largest importer. Argentina was the 46th largest exporter and the 52nd largest importer. Colombia was the 54th largest exporter and the 51st largest importer ; among others. [ 161 ] [ 162 ] [ 163 ] The farming of the celibate is very strong and varied. Countries such as United States, Brazil, Canada, Mexico and Argentina are among the largest agricultural producers on the planet. In 2019, the celibate dominated the world production of soy sauce ( about 90 % of the world total, with Brazil, the United States, Argentina, Paraguay, Canada and Bolivia among the 10 largest on the planet ), sugarcane ( about 55 % of the global total, with Brazil, Mexico, the United States, and Guatemala among the 10 largest on the planet ), coffee ( about 55 % of the worldly concern sum, with Brazil, Colombia, Honduras, Peru and Guatemala among the 10 largest on the planet ) and maize ( about 48 % of the world total, with the United States, Brazil, Argentina and Mexico among the 10 largest on the planet ). The celibate besides produces about 40 % of global ‘s orange ( with Brazil, the US and Mexico among the top 10 producers ), about 37 % of earth ‘s pineapple ( with Costa Rica, Brazil, Mexico and Colombia among the 10 largest producers ), about 35 % of global ‘s lemon ( with Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, and the United States among the 10 largest producers ) and about 30 % of world ‘s cotton ( with the US, Brazil, Mexico and Argentina among the exceed 10 producers ), among several early products. [ 164 ] In livestock, America besides has giant productions. In 2018, the continent produced around 45 % of the worldly concern ‘s beef ( with the US, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico and Canada among the world ‘s 10 largest producers ) ; about 36 % of the world ‘s chicken kernel ( with the US, Brazil and Mexico among the populace ‘s 10 largest producers ), and about 28 % of the world ‘s cow ‘s milk ( with the US and Brazil among the 10 largest producers in the worldly concern ), among other products. [ 164 ] In industrial terms, the World Bank lists the exceed producing countries each class, based on the sum value of product. According to the 2019 list, the United States has the second most valuable industry in the worldly concern ( US $ 2.3 trillion ), Mexico has the 12th most valuable industry in the world ( US $ 217.8 billion ), Brazil has the 13th most valuable industry. valuable in the world ( US $ 173.6 billion ), Canada has the 15th most valuable industry in the worldly concern ( US $ 151.7 billion ), Venezuela the thirtieth largest ( US $ 58.2 billion, but depends on the oil to obtain this sum ), Argentina was the 31st largest ( US $ 57.7 billion ), Colombia the 46th largest ( US $ 35.4 billion ), Peru the fiftieth largest ( $ 28.7 billion ), and Chile the 51st largest ( US $ 28.3 billion ), among others. [ 165 ] In the production of oil, the continent had 8 of the 30 largest global producers in 2020 : United States ( 1st ), Canada ( 4th ), Brazil ( 8th ), Mexico ( 14th ), Colombia ( 20th ), Venezuela ( 26th ), Ecuador ( 27th ) and Argentina ( 28th ). [ 166 ] In the production of natural flatulence, the continent had 8 of the 32 largest earth producers in 2015 : United States ( 1st ), Canada ( 5th ), Argentina ( 18th ), Trinidad and Tobago ( 20th ), Mexico ( 21st ), Venezuela ( 28th ), Bolivia ( 31st ) and Brazil ( 32nd ). [ 167 ] [ 168 ] In the production of char, the continent had 5 of the 30 largest world producers in 2018 : United States ( 3rd ), Colombia ( 12th ), Canada ( 13th ), Mexico ( 24th ) and Brazil ( 27th ). [ 169 ] In the production of vehicles, the continent had 5 of the 30 largest world producers in 2019 : United States ( 2nd ), Mexico ( 7th ), Brazil ( 9th ), Canada ( 12th ) and Argentina ( 28th ). [ 170 ] In the production of steel, the continent had 5 of the 31 largest global producers in 2019 : United States ( 4th ), Brazil ( 9th ), Mexico ( 15th ), Canada ( 18th ) and Argentina ( 31st ). [ 171 ] [ 172 ] In mine, the celibate has bombastic productions of gold ( chiefly in the United States, Canada, Peru, Mexico, Brazil and Argentina ) ; [ 173 ] eloquent ( chiefly in Mexico, Peru, Chile, Bolivia, Argentina and the USA ) ; [ 174 ] copper ( chiefly in Chile, Peru, USA, Mexico and Brazil ) ; [ 175 ] platinum ( Canada and US ) ; [ 176 ] iron ore ( Brazil, Canada, USA, Peru and Chile ) ; [ 177 ] zinc ( Peru, USA, Mexico, Bolivia, Canada and Brazil ) ; [ 178 ] molybdenum ( Chile, Peru, Mexico, Canada, USA ) ; [ 179 ] lithium ( Chile, Argentina, Brazil and Canada ) ; [ 180 ] lead ( Peru, USA, Mexico and Bolivia ) ; [ 181 ] bauxite ( Brazil, Jamaica, Canada, and USA ) ; [ 182 ] canister ( Peru, Bolivia and Brazil ) ; [ 183 ] manganese ( Brazil and Mexico ) ; [ 184 ] antimony ( Bolivia, Mexico, Guatemala, Canada and Ecuador ) ; [ 185 ] nickel ( Canada, Brazil, Dominican Republic, Cuba and USA ) ; [ 186 ] niobium ( Brazil and Canada ) ; [ 187 ] rhenium ( Chile and USA ) ; [ 188 ] and iodine ( Chile ), [ 189 ] among others. Dominica, Panama and the Dominican Republic have the fastest-growing economy in the Americas according to the International Monetary Fund ( IMF ), [ 190 ] 16, five to seven countries in the southerly character of the Americas had weakening economies in decline, compared to merely three countries in the northern region of the Americas. [ 191 ] [ 192 ] Haiti has the lowest GDP per head in the Americas, although its economy was growing slenderly as of 2016. [ 191 ] [ 192 ]

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