Womanism – Wikipedia

not to be confused with Feminism Social theory
Black and white drawing of women of African-American descent holding a large pot together above their heads one is a cornerstone of womanist political orientation. Womanism is a sociable theory based on the history and everyday experiences of black women. It seeks, according to womanist scholar Layli Maparyan ( Phillips ), to “ restore the remainder between people and the environment/nature and reconcil [ vitamin e ] human life with the spiritual property ”. Writer Alice Walker coined the condition “ womanist ” in a inadequate fib, Coming Apart, in 1979. [ 3 ] [ 4 ] Since Walker ‘s initial consumption, the term has evolved to envelop deviate, and much opponent, interpretations of concepts such as feminism, men, and total darkness. [ 5 ]

hypothesis [edit ]

Womanist theory, while divers, holds at its kernel that mainstream feminist movement is a movement led by white women, to serve white women ‘s goals, and can frequently be indifferent to, or even in opposition to, the needs of Black women. feminist movement does not inherently render white women non-racist, while Womanism places anti-racism at its core. Both the authorization of women and the uphold of Black cultural values are seen as important to Black women ‘s universe. In this view, the very definition of “ the feminine ” and “ femininity ” must be re-examine and contextualized. [ 5 ] While third-wave feminism shares this concern with the more recently coined term, intersectionality, the two concepts differ in the evaluation they place on intersectionality within their respective theoretical frameworks. [ 6 ] Womanism supports the mind that the culture of the woman, which in this case is the focal point of intersection as opposed to course or some other characteristic, is not an element of her identity but quite is the lens through which her identity exists. As such, a woman ‘s Blackness is not a component of her feminism. rather, her Blackness is the lens through which she understands her feminist/womanist identity. [ 7 ] Womanist hypothesis grew in boastfully region out of the perceived nonchalance of the feminist movement towards the concerns of Black women. early feminist activism around right to vote ( first-wave feminist movement ) in the United States largely excluded colored women, as colored women were not seen as feminine/female in the lapp ways as ashen women and therefore did not merit fully inclusion. [ 8 ] The lift of second-wave feminist movement brought greater inclusivity of colored women within the movement. however, flannel feminists equated this inclusion body with “ colorblindness ” and preferred to deemphasize racial issues in favor of focusing entirely on gender concerns. An inability to reconcile this class ultimately hampered the ability of white and colored feminists to create a functional interracial campaign. As a result of this unplug between the groups, a third-wave feminist movement began that incorporated the concepts of intersectionality and womanism. [ 9 ] The historic ejection of Black women from the broader feminist bowel movement has resulted in two interpretations of womanism. Some womanists believe that the experience of Black women will not be validated by feminists to be peer to the have of white women because of the debatable way in which some feminists treated Blackness throughout history. [ 10 ] As such, womanists do not see womanism as an extension of feminist movement, but rather as a theoretical framework which exists mugwump of feminist hypothesis. This is a deviation from the think of Black feminists who have carved their own quad in feminist movement through academia and activism. [ 11 ] however, not all womanists hold this watch of womanism as discrete from feminism. The earliest concept of womanism is expressed in Alice Walker ‘s statement “ womanism is to feminism as purple is to lavender ”. [ 12 ] Under this rubric, the theories appear well tied, with womanism as the broad umbrella under which feminism falls .

theoretical origins [edit ]

Alice Walker [edit ]

writer and poet Alice Walker first base used the term “ womanist ” in her short fib, “ Coming apart ”, in 1979, and later in In Search of our Mothers’ Gardens: Womanist Prose ( 1983 ). Walker defined a “ womanist ” as a total darkness feminist or feminist of color. The term comes from the black family saying of mothers to female children, ‘You acting womanish ‘, referring to grown-up behavior. [ 14 ] The womanish daughter exhibits willful, brave, and exorbitant behavior that is considered to be beyond the telescope of social norms. [ 12 ] She goes on to say that a womanist is besides :

A woman who loves other women, sexually and/or nonsexually. Appreciates and prefers women ‘s acculturation, women ‘s emotional tractability … and women ‘s lastingness. … Committed to survival and wholeness of entire people, male and female. not a breakaway, except sporadically, for health … Loves music. Loves dance. Loves the moon. Loves the Spirit … Loves fight. Loves the folk music. Loves herself. Regardless. Womanist is to feminist as imperial is to lavender .

According to Walker, while feminism is incorporated into womanism, it is besides instinctively pro-humankind ; womanism is a broader category that includes feminist movement as a subtype. [ 16 ] The focus of the theology is not on sex inequality, but race- and class-based oppression. [ 17 ] She sees womanism as a theory/movement for the survival of the bootleg race ; a theory that takes into consideration the experiences of black women, black culture, black myths, spiritual life, and orality. [ 18 ] Walker ‘s a lot cited phrase, “ womanist is to feminist as purple is to lavender ”, suggests that feminism is a part below the much larger ideological umbrella of womanism. [ 14 ] Walker ‘s definition besides holds that womanists are universalists. This philosophy is promote invoke by her metaphor of a garden where all flowers bloom evenly. A womanist is committed to the survival of both males and females and desires a world where men and women can coexist, while maintaining their cultural disparateness. [ 14 ] This inclusion of men provides black women with an opportunity to address sex oppression without immediately attacking men. [ 19 ] A one-third definition provided by Walker pertains to the sex of the women portrayed in her review of Gifts of Power: The Writings of Rebecca Jackson. hera, she argues that the best term to describe Rebecca Jackson, a black shaker who leaves her husband and goes on to live with her white Shaker companion, would be a womanist, because it is a give voice that affirms the connection to the worldly concern, regardless of sex. [ 17 ] The apparently contrasting interpretations of womanism given by Walker validate the experiences of african-american women, while promoting a visionary perspective for the worldly concern based on said experiences. [ 14 ] much of Alice Walker ‘s offspring accept that while she is the creator of the term, Walker fails to systematically define the term and much contradicts herself. [ 20 ] At some points she portrays womanism as a more inclusive rewrite of black feminist movement as it is not limited to black women and focuses on the woman as a whole. Later in animation she begins to regret this peace-seeking and inclusive form of womanism ascribable to the constant and coherent prejudice inflicted upon black women, specifically, whose voices had however to be validated by both white women and black men. [ 21 ]

Clenora Hudson-Weems [edit ]

Clenora Hudson-Weems is credited with coining the term Africana womanism. In 1995, the publication of her reserve, Africana Womanism: Reclaiming Ourselves sent electric shock waves through the black nationalism residential district and established her as an independent thinker. [ 22 ] Hudson-Weems rejects feminist movement as the theology of Africana women, that is to say women of the African diaspora, because it is philosophically rooted in Eurocentric ideals. [ 17 ] Hudson-Weems identifies further differences between womanism and feminist movement being ; womanism is “ family-oriented ” and focuses on subspecies, course, and sex, while feminist movement is “ female-oriented ” and strictly focuses on biological sex related issues women and girls face, globally. [ 23 ] She far asserts that it is impossible to incorporate the cultural perspectives of african women into the feminist movement ideal due to the history of bondage and racism in America. Furthermore, Weems rejects feminism ‘s word picture of the man as the enemy. She claims that this does not connect with Africana women as they do not see Africana men as the enemy. rather the foe is the oppressive force that subjugates the Africana homo, woman, and child. [ 10 ] She claims that feminist movement ‘s masculine-feminine binary comes from a miss of extra asperity placed on women by their circumstances ( i.e. race and socio-economic ) as feminism was founded to appeal to upper-class white women. [ 10 ] She besides distances the Africana charwoman from black feminism by demarcating the latter as distinctly African-American which is in turn distinctly westerly. [ 24 ] She besides critiques black feminist movement as a subset of feminism needing the establishment of white feminists for their voices to be heard. She claims that feminist movement will never in truth bear black feminists, but rather relegate them to the fringes of the feminist bowel movement. [ 25 ] She ultimately claims that the matriarch of the black feminist bowel movement will never be put into the lapp conversation as the matriarch of the feminist campaign. A large part of her work mirrors separatist Black Nationalist sermon, because of the focus on the collective preferably than the individual as the forefront of her ideology. Hudson-Weems refutes Africana womanism as an addendum to feminist movement, and asserts that her political orientation differs from black feminism, Walker ‘s womanism, and african womanism. [ 25 ]

Chikwenye Okonjo Ogunyemi [edit ]

Chikwenye Okonjo Ogunyemi is a nigerian literary critic who in 1985 published the article “ Womanism : The Dynamics of the Contemporary Black Female Novel in English ”, describing her interpretation of womanism. She asserts that the womanist sight is to answer the ultimate motion of how to equitably share office among the races and between the sexes. [ 5 ] [ 26 ] She arrived at her rendition of the term independently of Alice Walker ‘s definition, so far there are several overlaps between the two ideologies. In alliance with Walker ‘s definition focus on total darkness and womanhood, Ogunyemi writes, “ black womanism is a philosophy that celebrates black roots, the ideals of black life sentence, while giving a balance presentation of black womandom ”. [ 26 ] preferably than citing gender inequality as the source of black oppression, Ogunyemi takes a separatist stance a lot like Hudson-Weems, and dismisses the hypothesis of reconciliation of white feminists and black feminists on the grounds of the intractability of racism. [ 17 ] She uses a few examples of how feminists write about total darkness and African Blackness specifically to make outstanding the need for an african conception of womanism. These critiques include the function of total darkness as a joyride to forward feminist ideals without besides forwarding ideals related to blackness, the think that westerly feminist movement is a creature which would work in african nations without acknowledging cultural norms and differences, and a co-opting of things that African women have been doing for centuries before the western notion of feminist movement into western feminism. [ 27 ] Ogunyemi finds her concept of womanism ‘s relationship with men at the hybridization roads of Walker ‘s and Hudson Weems ‘. Walker ‘s expresses a communal opportunity for men while acknowledging how they can be dangerous to the womanist community. [ 20 ] Hudson-Weems ‘ conception refuses to see the Africana man as an enemy, disregarding the damage that Africana men have imparted on to the community. [ 28 ]

Ideologies [edit ]

Womanism has assorted definitions and interpretations. At its broadest definition, it is a universalistic ideology for all women, careless of color. A womanist is, according to Walker ‘s 1979 floor “ come Apart ”, an african-american heterosexual woman volition to utilize wisdom of solomon from african-american lesbians about how to improve sexual relationships and avoid being sexually objectified. [ citation needed ] In the context of men ‘s destructive function of pornography and their exploitation of black women as pornographic objects, a womanist is besides committed to “ the survival and wholeness of an stallion people, male and female ” [ 29 ] through confronting oppressive forces. Walker ‘s much cited phrase, “ womanist is to feminist as purple is to lavender ”, suggests that Walker considers feminist movement as a part of the across-the-board ideological umbrella of womanism. [ 19 ] It focuses on the singular experiences, struggles, needs, and desires of not just black women, but all women of color in addition to critically addressing the dynamics of the conflict between the mainstream feminist, the black feminist, the African feminist, and the Africana womanist campaign. [ 30 ] however, there is black nationalist converse prevailing within womanist oeuvre and for this reason scholars are divided between associating womanism with other similar ideologies such as black feminism and Africana womanism or taking the stance that the three are inherently incompatible. [ 22 ]

Black feminism [edit ]

The black feminist movement was formed in answer to the needs of women who were racially underrepresented by the Women ‘s Movement and sexually oppressed by the Black Liberation Movement. [ 31 ] Black feminist scholars assert that african-american women are doubly disadvantaged in the social, economic, and political sphere, because they face discrimination on the footing of both raceway and gender. [ 32 ] Black women felt that their needs were being ignored by both movements and they struggled to identify with either based on race or gender. african-american women who use the term black feminist movement attach a diverseness of interpretations to it. [ 33 ]

One such interpretation is that black feminist movement addresses the needs of african-american women that the feminist movement motion largely ignores. Feminism, as black feminist theorist Pearl Cleage defines it, is “ the impression that women are full human beings adequate to of participation and leadership in the full scope of human activities—intellectual, political, social, sexual, spiritual, and economic ”. [ 19 ] With this definition, the feminist agenda can be said to encompass different issues ranging from political rights to educational opportunities within a ball-shaped context. [ 19 ] The black feminist agenda seeks to streamline these issues and focuses on those that are the most applicable to african-american women .

Africana womanism [edit ]

Clenora Hudson-Weems ‘s Africana womanism arose from a nationalist Africana studies concept. In Africana Womanism: Reclaiming Ourselves, Hudson-Weems explores the limitations of feminist theory and explains the ideas and activism of different african women who have contributed to womanist theory. [ 34 ] At its core, Africana womanism rejects feminist movement because it is set up in a direction as to promote the issues of white women over the issues of total darkness women. Hudson-Weems argues that feminism will never be okay for black women due to the implications of slavery and bias. [ 17 ] Weems professes womanism is separate from other feminist movement in that it has a different agenda, different priorities, and “ focuses on the unique experiences, struggles, needs, and desires of Africana women. ” [ 23 ] She farther asserts that the relationship between a black serviceman and a black womanhood is significantly different from the kinship between a white man and a blank woman, because the white woman battles the blank man for subjugating her, but the black women battles all oppressive forces that subjugate her, her children, and the black man. [ 17 ] [ 35 ] She promote asserts that racism forced african-american men and african-american women to assume unconventional gender roles. In this context, the desire of mainstream feminist movement to dismantle traditional gender roles becomes inapplicable to the black have. Unlike womanism, [ 22 ] though close related, Africana womanism is an political orientation designed specifically with women of african lineage in mind. It is grounded in african culture and focuses on the singular struggles, needs, and desires of african women. Based on this reason, Africana womanism posits race- and class-based oppression as far more significant than gender-based oppression. [ 17 ]

Womanist identity [edit ]

In her introduction to The Womanist Reader, Layli Phillips contends that despite womanism ‘s word picture, its main concern is not the black womanhood per southeast but preferably the black charwoman is the target of initiation for womanism. [ 5 ] The basic tenets of womanism includes a strong self-authored spirit of activism that is specially apparent in literature. Womanism has been such a polarize drift for women that it has managed to step outside of the black community and extend itself into early colored communities. “ Purple is to Lavender ” illustrates this through experiences that Dimpal Jain and Caroline Turner discus. [ 36 ] Some scholars view womanism as a subcategory of feminism while others argue that it is actually the other way around. Purple is to Lavender explores the concept that womanism is to feminism as purple is to lavender, that feminist movement falls under the umbrella of womanism. In “ Purple is to Lavender ”, Dimpal Jain and Caroline Turner discuss their experiences as colored women in staff. They experienced a big deal of discrimination because they were minorities. [ 36 ] Jain is South asian, while Caroline identifies as Filipino. They go on to describe the concept of “ The Politics of Naming ” which shapes the argue for why they prefer womanism as opposed to feminism [ 36 ] Jain states : “ I knew that the term feminist movement was contested and that I did not like how it fit in my mouth. It was uncomfortable and abrasive, about like a extraneous substance that I was being forced to consume as the white women continued to smile with comforting looks of acquaintance and pride ” [ 36 ] here Turner makes it well known that she feels as though feminist movement is something that is pull upon her. She feels like she can not completely identify with feminist movement. It is besides important to note Jain ‘s statement that, “ The southern cross of the politics of list is that name serve as identifiers and are not neutral when attached to social movements, ideas, and groups of people. Naming and labeling become politicize acts when they serve to determine any type of membership at a group level. ” [ 36 ] This statement illustrates that if an individual identifies with feminist movement they may do so for particular reasons. however, those reasons may not be discernible to the general public because of the intension that the news feminism brings with it in terms of social movements, ideas, and groups of people. Individuals want something to identify with that expresses and supports their beliefs holistically. They want something that they can embrace to the fullest without any hint of regret. similarly, Alice Walker even states : “ I do n’t choose womanism because it is ‘better ‘ than feminist movement … I choose it because I prefer the sound, the feel, the fit of it … because I partake the old ethnic-American habit of offering company a raw word when the old bible it is using fails to describe behavior and exchange that alone a modern discussion can help it more amply see ” [ 36 ] For a majority of black women feminism has failed to accurately and holistically describe them as individuals to the world that surrounds them. They feel as though it takes something raw that is not already bound to a predetermined master in arrange to capture this new movement. Womanism is something that Alice Walker can wholly identify with without having moment thoughts ; it feels natural to her. feminism does not. When distinguishing between feminist movement and womanism it is crucial to remember that many women find womanism easier to identify with. In accession, a key component of a womanist hold forth is the function that spirituality and ethics has on ending the interlocking oppression of subspecies, sex, and class that circumscribes the lives of african-american women. [ 37 ]

literature and activism [edit ]

Womanist literature and activism are two areas that are largely interpolated, with each having a considerable effect on the other. A major dogma of womanist literature and activism is the idea that bootleg activists and black authors should separate themselves from the feminist political orientation. This stems from assertions by Kalenda Eaton, Chikwenye Okonjo Ogunyemi, and numerous other womanist theologians that the goal of a womanist should be to promote the issues affecting not merely black women, but black men and early groups that have been subjected to discrimination or powerlessness. [ 38 ] In the words of Chikwenye Okonjo Ogunyemi, a white charwoman writer may be a feminist, but a black charwoman writer is probably to be a womanist. That is, she recognizes that along with battle for sexual equality, she must besides incorporate race, economics, acculturation, and politics within her philosophy. [ 39 ] In Kalenda Eaton ‘s, Womanism, Literature and the Transformation of the Black Community, total darkness women writers are portrayed as both activists and visionaries for change in the black Community following the Civil Rights Movement. [ 6 ] She interweaves the historic events of african-american history with the development of Afro-Politico womanism in a bid to create a haven for black female activism within the black community. [ 39 ] This Afro-Politico womanism veers from the traditional feminist goal of sex equality within a group and preferably seeks to fight for the men and women whose civil rights are infringed upon. While Eaton takes the position that black women were largely excluded from the more outstanding positions within the Black Movement, she argues that black women activists had the greatest effect in minor grassroots protests within their communities. [ 40 ] Using respective characters from Toni Morrison ‘s Song of Solomon, Alice Walker ‘s Meridian, Toni Cade Bambara ‘s The Salt Eaters, and Paule Marshall ‘s The Chosen Place, the Timeless People as symbols of the diverse political agendas and issues that were prevailing within The Black Movement, Eaton draws upon the actions of the protagonists to illustrate solutions to the problems of disgruntlement and disorganization within the movement. Often the main undertaking of these literary activists was to empower the impoverished masses—defined by Eaton as chiefly Southern African-Americans, and they used the black middle classify as a model for the possibility of sociable mobility within the african-american community. [ 39 ] A common composition within womanist literature is the failure of black women writers to identify with feminist idea. Womanism becomes the concept that binds these novelists together. Audre Lorde in The Master’s Tools Will Never Dismantle the Master’s House criticizes second-wave feminism, arguing that women were taught to ignore their differences, or alternately to let their differences divide them. Lorde never used the word “ womanist ” or “ womanism ” in her writing or in descriptions of herself, but her ferment has helped to further the concept. As she pointed out, traditional second-wave feminism often focused besides narrowly on the concerns of white, heterosexual women, with the concerns of black women and lesbians often being ignored. [ 41 ]

spiritualty [edit ]

Womanist spirituality has six identifying characteristics—it is eclectic, man-made, holistic, personal, visionary, and pragmatic. It draws from its resources and uses the summation of said resources to create a unharmed from multiple parts. Although it is ultimately defined by self, womanist spiritualty envisions the larger picture and exists to solve problems and end injustice. [ 17 ] Emilie Townes, a womanist theologian, foster asserts that womanist spiritualty grows out of individual and communal reflection on african-american religion and life. She explains that it is not grounded in the notion that spiritualty is a wedge but rather a drill divide from who we are moment by moment. [ 42 ] One of the chief characteristics of womanism is its religious aspect, normally think of as Christian. This connotation paints the picture of religious bootleg womanists being “ church going ” women that play a vital role in the operation of the church. In William ‘s article “ Womanist spiritualty Defined ” she discusses how womanist spiritualty is directly connected to an individual ‘s experiences with God. [ 43 ] For example, Williams declares, “ the use of the term spirituality in this composition speaks of the everyday experiences of life and the way in which we relate to and interpret God at study in those experiences ”. [ 43 ] This intension is disputed in Monica Coleman ‘s round table discussion : “ Must I Be a Womanist ? ” where she focuses on the shortcomings of womanism that result from how individuals have historically described womanism. [ 44 ] This holistic discussion of womanism is the result of a round table discussion. Coleman, who initiated the discussion, describes her thoughts on why she prefers bootleg feminism as opposed to womanism, and she besides discusses the limit oscilloscope that womanist religious scholarship embodies. [ 44 ] Coleman offers trench insight into the spiritual aspect of womanism when she declares that, “ intentionally or not, womanists have created a christian hegemonic hold forth within the sphere ”. here Coleman argues that the majority of womanists have painted the spiritual aspect of womanism to be apparitional in terms of Christianity. A particular exemplar of this occurs in Walker ‘s “ Everyday Use ”, in the example when the mother suddenly gains the courage to take a rack against her pamper daughter as she declares, “ When I looked at her like that something hit me in the top of my head and ran down to the soles of my feet. Just like when I ‘m in church and the intent of God touches me and I get felicitous and exclaim ”. [ 46 ] This could be categorized as an exemplar of the spiritual aspect of womanism because of the mention of relation to the Christian God. however, Coleman provides a counter exercise to this assumption when she states : “ How, for example, might a womanist interpret the strength Tina Turner finds in Buddhism and the role her religion played in helping her to leave a violent kinship ? ” here Coleman pokes a trap in the pre-conceived notions of womanist eruditeness. Coleman believes that the ill-famed sector of spiritualty that womanism is most known for referring to is limited in its setting. Womanist religious scholarship has the ability to spread across a diverseness of paradigm and stage and support revolutionary womanist spirituality. Considering womanism as a whole, it is besides important to understand how it relates to feminist movement .

Ethics [edit ]

Womanist ethics is a religious discipline that examines the ethical theories concerning homo representation, action, and relationship. At the same time, it rejects social constructions that have neglected the universe of a group of women that have bared the brunt of injustice and oppression. [ 38 ] Its perspective is shaped by the theological experiences of african-american women. [ 38 ] With the practice of analytic tools, the impression of race, class, sex, and sex on the person and communal position is examined. Womanist ethic provides an option to Christian and other religious ethics while utilizing the elements of review, description, and construction to assess the office asymmetry and patriarchy that has been used to oppress women of discolor and their communities. [ 38 ] Katie Cannon ‘s “ The emergence of Black Feminist Consciousness ” was the first issue to speak directly about womanist ethics. In this article, Cannon argues that the perspectives of black women are largely ignored in diverse religious and academic discourses. Jacquelyn Grant expands on this compass point by asserting that black women concurrently experience the three oppressive forces of racism, sexism, and classism. [ 38 ] Black feminist hypothesis has been used by womanist ethics to explain the miss of engagement of african-american women and men in academic discourse. Patricia Collins, credits this phenomenon to prevalence of white men determining what should or should not be considered valid discussion and urges for an alternative mood of producing cognition that includes the congress of racial equality themes of black female consciousness. [ 38 ]

Critiques [edit ]

A major ongoing review about womanist scholarship is the failure of many scholars to critically address homosexuality within the black community. Walker ‘s supporter in Coming Apart uses writings from two african-american womanists, Audre Lorde and Luisah Teish, to support her argumentation that her conserve should stop consuming pornography, [ 4 ] and posts quotes from lesbian poet Lorde above her kitchen sink. In Search of Our Mothers’ Gardens states that a womanist is “ a woman who loves another womanhood, sexually and/or non-sexually ”, [ 12 ] even despite Coming Apart and In Search of Our Mother’s Gardens, there is very little literature linking womanism to lesbian or bisexual issues. Womanist theologian Renee Hill cites christian influences as a source of the heterosexism and homophobia. Rev. Kelly Brown Douglas besides sees the influence of the Black church service, and its male leadership, as a argue for the community at big having small attentiveness for queer women of color. [ 48 ] Black feminist critic Barbara Smith blames this lack of patronize on the black residential district ‘s reluctance to come to terms with homosexuality. [ 19 ] On the other hand, there is besides an increase in the criticism of heterosexism within womanist eruditeness. christian womanist theologian Pamela R. Lightsey, in her book Our Lives Matter: A Womanist Queer Theology ( 2015 ), writes, “ To many people, we are still perverts. To many, the black pervert is the most dangerous terror to the american ideal. Because the blacken conservative middle class has joined the approach on our personhood, black LGBTQ persons can not allow the sermon to be controlled such that our universe within the black community is denied or made inconspicuous. ” [ 49 ] An extra criticism lies within the ambivalence of womanism. In african womanism, the term is associated with Black nationalist discussion and the breakaway movement. Patricia Collins argues that this exaggerates racial differences by promoting homogeneous identity. This is a acuate contrast to the universalistic model of womanism that is championed by Walker. The continue controversy and dissidence within the versatile ideologies of womanism serves lone to draw attention away from the finish of ending race and gender-based oppression. [ 22 ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

farther read [edit ]

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