Fear of missing out – Wikipedia

type of sociable anxiety
“ FOMO ” redirects here. For the album by Liam Finn, see FOMO ( album ) [1]Smartphones enable people to remain in contact with their social and professional network continuously. This may result in compulsive checking for status updates and messages, for fear of missing an opportunity. Fear of missing out ( FOMO ) is the palpate of apprehension that one is either not in the know or missing out on information, events, experiences, or life decisions that could make one ‘s animation better. [ 2 ] FOMO is besides associated with a fear of sorrow, [ 3 ] which may lead to concerns that one might miss an opportunity for social interaction, a novel experience, a memorable consequence, or a profitable investing. [ 4 ] It is characterized by a desire to stay continually connected with what others are doing, [ 2 ] and can be described as the fear that deciding not to participate is the incorrect option. [ 3 ] [ 5 ] FOMO could result from not knowing about a conversation, [ 6 ] missing a television receiver indicate, not attending a wedding or party, [ 7 ] or listening that others have discovered a new restaurant. [ 8 ] FOMO in late years has been attributed to a number of negative psychological and behavioral symptoms. [ 3 ] [ 9 ] [ 10 ] FOMO has increased in late times due to advancements in engineering. [ 11 ] Social networking sites creates many opportunities for FOMO. While it provides opportunities for sociable date, [ 2 ] it offers a view into an endless current of activities in which a person is not involved. psychological dependence on social media can lead to FOMO [ 12 ] or flush pathological internet function. [ 13 ] FOMO is besides present in video games, invest, and business market. [ 14 ] [ 15 ] [ 16 ] The increasing popularity of the phrase has led to related linguistic and cultural variants. [ 17 ] FOMO is associated with worsening depression and anxiety, and a lower choice of life. [ 18 ]

FOMO can besides affect businesses. Hype and trends can lead business leaders to invest based on perceptions of what others are doing, preferably than their own business strategy. [ 19 ]

history [edit ]

The phenomenon was first identified in 1996 by marketing strategist Dr. Dan Herman, who conducted research for Adam Bellouch and published the first academician paper on the topic in 2000 in The Journal of Brand Management. [ 21 ] Dr. Dan Harmen besides believes the concept has evolved to become more wide circulate through fluid call usage, texting, and social media and have helped flesh out the concept of the fear of missing out to the masses. [ 11 ] Before the Internet, a relate phenomenon, “ keeping up with the Joneses ‘ ”, was widely experienced. FOMO generalized and intensified this experience because so much more of people ‘s lives became publicly documented and easily accessed. Further, a common tendency is to post about positive experiences ( that capital restaurant ) rather than negative ones ( bad first date ). Studies have found that the likelihood of experiencing fear of missing out has been linked to anxiety or depressive disorder. [ 2 ] [ 22 ] Author Patrick J. McGinnis coined the term FOMO [ 23 ] and popularized it in a 2004 op-ed in The Harbus, the magazine of Harvard Business School. The article was titled McGinnis’ Two FOs: Social Theory at HBS, and besides referred to another related condition, Fear of a Better option ( FOBO ), and their character in the school ‘s social biography. [ 20 ] [ 11 ] [ 24 ] The lineage of FOMO has besides been traced to the 2004 Harbus article by academic Joseph Reagle. [ 25 ] presently the condition has been used as a hashtag on social media and has been mentioned in hundreds of news articles, from on-line sources like Salon to print papers like the New York Times. [ 11 ]

Symptoms [edit ]

psychological [edit ]

fear of missing out has been associated with a deficit in psychological needs. [ 2 ] Self-determination theory contends that an individual ‘s psychological satisfaction in their competence, autonomy, and relatedness consists of three basic psychological needs for human beings. [ 26 ] Test subjects with lower levels of basic psychological gratification reported a higher degree of FOMO. FOMO has besides been linked to veto psychological effects in overall climate and general life gratification. [ 3 ] A study performed on college campuses found that experiencing FOMO on a certain day led to a higher fatigue on that day specifically. [ 22 ] Experiencing FOMO endlessly throughout the semester besides can lead to higher stress levels among students. [ 22 ] An individual with an expectation to experience the fear of missing out can besides develop a lower degree of self-esteem. [ 10 ] A study by JWTIntelligence suggests that FOMO can influence the formation of long-run goals and self-perceptions. [ 27 ] In this cogitation, around half of the respondents stated that they are overwhelmed by the total of information needed to stay up-to-date, and that it is impossible to not miss out on something. The process of relative privation creates FOMO and dissatisfaction. It reduces psychological wellbeing. [ 2 ] [ 18 ] [ 28 ] FOMO led to negative social and emotional experiences, such as boredom and loneliness. [ 29 ] A 2013 survey found that it negatively impacts mood and life atonement, [ 2 ] reduces self-esteem, and affects mindfulness. [ 30 ] Four in ten young people reported FOMO sometimes or frequently. [ 27 ] FOMO was found to be negatively correlated with senesce, and men were more likely than women to report It. [ 2 ]

behavioral [edit ]

The fear of missing out stems from a feel of missing social connections or information. [ 9 ] This absent feeling is then followed by a motivation or drive to interact socially to boost connections. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] The fear of missing out does not only lead to negative psychological effects but besides has been shown to increase minus behavioral patterns. [ 9 ] In aims of maintaining social connections negative habits are formed or heightened. [ 22 ] A 2019 University of Glasgow study surveyed 467 adolescents, and found that the respondents felt social pressure to always be available. [ 31 ] According to John M. Grohol, founder and Editor-in-Chief of Psych Central, FOMO may lead to a constant research for new connections with others, abandoning current connections to do so. [ 32 ] The fear of missing out derived from digital association has been positively correlated with badly technology habits particularly in youth. [ 33 ] These damaging habits included increased screen fourth dimension, checking social media during educate, or driving while texting. [ 33 ] [ 2 ] Social media function in the presence of others can be referred to as phubbing. [ 33 ] Multiple studies have besides identified a negative correlation between the hours of sleep and the scale at which individuals experience concern of missing out. [ 10 ] [ 22 ] A miss of sleep in college students experiencing FOMO can be attributed to the number of sociable interactions that occur late at nox on campuses. [ 22 ] Another study has highlighted the shock of FOMO in college students making adverse decisions with alcohol such as underage drink, and binge-drinking. [ 34 ]

Settings [edit ]

social media [edit ]

fear of missing out has a positive correlation with higher levels of sociable media custom. [ 2 ] Social media connects individuals and showcases the lives of others at their vertex. [ 2 ] This gives people the fear of missing out when they feel like others on social media are taking separate in positive animation experiences that they are personally besides experiencing. [ 2 ] This concern of missing out related to social media has symptoms including anxiety, loneliness, and a feeling of insufficiency compared to others. [ 35 ] Self-esteem plays a key function in the levels a person feels when experiencing the fear of missing out as their self worth is influenced by people they observe on social media. [ 2 ] There are two types of anxiety, one related to genetics that is permanent and one that is irregular. [ citation needed ] This state anxiety or impermanent anxiety is the one that is more relevant to the fear of missing out. [ citation needed ] The concern of missing out anxiety is irregular as it is immediately related to the individual looking at social media sites for a short period of time. [ citation needed ] This anxiety is caused by a loss of feel of belongingness through the concept of social exception. [ citation needed ] FOMO-sufferers may increasingly seek access to others ‘ social lives, and consume an escalating come of real-time information. [ 36 ] A surveil in 2012 indicated that 83 % of respondents said that there is information overload in regards that there is besides much to watch and read. [ citation needed ] Constant information that is available to people through social media causes the fear of missing out as people feel bad about themselves for not staying up to date with relevant information. [ 2 ] Social media shows merely precisely what people are missing out on in real time including events like parties, opportunities, and other events leading for people to fear missing out on other related future events. [ citation needed ] Another survey indicates that about 40 % of people from ages 12 through 67 argue that social media has led to a higher feeling of the fear of missing out. [ citation needed ] Millennials are the most affect by the fear of missing out, the highest proportion compared to other generations and this is due to the bulge of sociable media for the generation. [ citation needed ] Social media platforms that are associated with FOMO include Snapchat, [ 37 ] Facebook, [ 38 ] and Instagram. [ 39 ]

Video games [edit ]

People want to be a part of the in-group and feel like they belong, making them fear missing out on being region of the in-group. [ 14 ] People do not want to feel like that they are missing out of being region of the belonging group with deference to video games, which causes a video game addiction. [ 14 ] When people align their social identities with the video game they are playing, they fear that not playing adequate will outcast them from the group they are playing with, leading to the fear of missing out of being a dedicate member of the community. [ 14 ] Within video games, FOMO is besides used to describe the alike anxiety around missing the ability to obtain in-game items or complete activities that are only available for a limited time, such as those in battle passes. This is particularly common for multiplayer television games, where such items are cosmetic in nature but reflect a actor ‘s skill to other players in the game and can become a signboard of social stand within the crippled ‘s residential district ; failure to acquire a limited cosmetic token may lead to social outcasting particularly in groups of younger players. [ 40 ] [ 41 ] [ 42 ]

Investing [edit ]

reverence of missing out has an influential role for the investment commercialize for cryptocurrencies. [ 15 ] With the prominence of people making large sums of money through cryptocurrencies, people fear of missing out on the future get rich quick currency. [ 15 ] This fear of missing out has caused the rise of heart and dump schemes where investors use the fear of missing out to raise the price of cryptocurrencies and sell them for a net income while lower tier traders are not able to see profits. [ 15 ] People are using bots in these cryptocurrency trades because they fear of missing out on making likely profits as profits can vary quickly even within the couple of twenty seconds. [ 15 ] Pump and dumps are a legal grey sphere for cryptocurrencies so it is not illegal for influencers to use fear of missing out to manipulate individuals. [ 15 ] The reverence of missing out is besides outstanding in the regular broth market. People do not want to miss out on likely livestock gains as the grocery store is on a current up drift as of October 2021. [ 43 ] There is a fear of missing out on making boastful gains through stocks driving the commercialize since the market was at a broken luff before. [ 43 ] The fear of missing out with regards to investing is not applied evenly to unlike types of stocks and even within different brands of the stocks in the same sector. [ 44 ] For case, there are differences between the fear of missing out on Burberry and Prada stock in which the Prada stock is seen as more valuable and people more probable fear to miss out on buying that particular stock. [ 44 ]

marketing [edit ]

advertising and selling campaigns may besides seek to intensify FOMO within assorted marketing strategy. Examples include AT & T ‘s “ Do n’t be left behind ” political campaign, Duracell ‘s Powermat “ Stay in load ” campaign and Heineken ‘s “ Sunrise ” campaign. [ 45 ] AT & T ‘s “ Do n’t be left behind ” campaign used the concern of missing out to make people want to join their network and welcome messages and emails at fast 4G rates to not miss updates from friends. [ 45 ] Duracell ‘s Powermat “ Stay in commission ” campaign showcased four all in phones and advertised to the viewers that the owners of the phone were missing out on updates on the phones because they were not using Duracell ‘s charging technologically to might the phones. [ 45 ] Heineken ‘s “ Sunrise ” campaign aimed to encourage creditworthy drink by portraying excessive drink as a way to miss the best parts of a party, quite than claiming that excessive drink is a risk to personal health. other brands attempt to counter FOMO, such as Nescafé ‘s “ Wake up to life sentence ” political campaign. [ 45 ] Harnessing television receiver viewers ‘ FOMO is besides perceived to foster higher broadcast ratings. real-time updates about condition and major social events allow for a more prosecute media consumption experience and faster dispersion of information. [ 45 ] real-time tweets about the Super Bowl are considered to be correlated with higher television ratings due to their appeal to FOMO and the prevalence of sociable media use. [ 45 ]

Variants [edit ]

cultural [edit ]

FOMO, as a word and as a social phenomenon, has several cultural variants. [ 46 ] Before Americans discovered FOMO, however, Singaporeans had already named their own interpretation “ kiasu ”. [ 47 ] Taken from the chinese dialect Hokkien, kiasu translates to a fear of losing out but encompasses any sort of competitive, meager or selfish behavior. [ 47 ]

linguistic [edit ]

The term FOMO has besides inspired offshoots such as FOBO, FOMOMO, MOMO, FOJI, BROMO, NEMO, SLOMO and JOMO. [ 17 ]

  • FOBO – meaning Fear of Better Options – was coined by American venture capitalist and author Patrick James McGinnis while he was a student at Harvard Business School.[48] McGinnis describes FOBO as a byproduct of a hyper-busy, hyper-connected world in which everything seems possible, and, as a result, you are spoiled for choice.[48]
  • ROMO is a term coined during the COVID-19 pandemic that stands for Reality of Missing Out. ROMO describes the feeling of knowing that you are not missing out on anything.[17]
  • FOMOMO stands for the Fear Of the Mystery Of Missing Out.[49] FOMOMO refers to a more extreme case of FOMO that occurs when one’s mobile device is unusable, resulting in angst caused by the inability to see what one is missing out on on social media.[49] Deprived of seeing friends’ social media posts, one may automatically assume that those on your social media feed are having a better time than you.[49]
  • MOMO stands for the Mystery Of Missing Out, referring to the paranoia that arises when one’s friends do not post anything on social media resulting in attempts to piece together what one may be missing out on.[50]
  • FOJI stands for Fear Of Joining In and refers to the fear of posting on social media in the worry that nobody will want to connect, follow or be friends with you.[51] FOJI (Fear of Joining In) is often seen as the opposite of MOMO (Mystery of Missing Out).
  • BROMO refers to instances when one’s friends (“bros”) protect them from missing out.[48] An example of BROMO would be if one’s friends refrained from posting pictures from their night out for fear of making anyone feel left out.[48]
  • NEMO stands for Nearly but not fully Missing Out.[49] NEMO can refer to people who are on online networks, but do not check them frequently.[49]
  • SLOMO stands for Slow to Missing Out, and refers to the gradual feeling that one is missing out.[49]

  • JOMO stands for the Joy of Missing Out and refers to the feeling of pleasure when missing out.[52] JOMO is a relatively positive belief that cutting off all social media and digital devices can be blissful.[48][49]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

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