How Binance became a hub for hackers, fraudsters and drug sellers

In September 2020, a union korean hack group known as Lazarus broke into a humble Slovakian crypto exchange and steal virtual currency worth some $ 5.4 million. It was one of a string of cyber heists by Lazarus that Washington said were aimed at funding North Korea ’ s nuclear weapons program .
respective hours late, the hackers opened at least two twelve anonymous accounts on Binance, the populace ’ second largest cryptocurrency exchange, enabling them to convert the steal funds and obscure the money trail, correspondence between Slovakia ’ s national patrol and Binance reveals .
In a small as nine minutes, using only encrypted electronic mail addresses as identification, the Lazarus hackers created Binance accounts and traded crypto stolen from Eterbase, the slovakian exchange, according to account records that Binance shared with the police and that are reported here for the inaugural clock.

“ Binance had no idea who was moving money through their rally ” because of the anonymous nature of the accounts, said Eterbase co-founder Robert Auxt, whose firm has been ineffective to locate or recover the funds .
Eterbase ’ mho lost money is function of a torrent of illegitimate funds that flowed through Binance from 2017 to 2021, a Reuters investigation has found .

“ Binance had no idea who was moving money through their exchange. ”

During this menstruation, Binance processed transactions totalling at least $ 2.35 billion stemming from hacks, investing fraud and illegal drug sales, Reuters calculated from an examen of court records, statements by law enforcement and blockchain data, compiled for the news means by two blockchain analysis firms. Two diligence experts reviewed the calculation and agreed with the appraisal .
individually, crypto researcher Chainalysis, hired by U.S. government agencies to track illegal flows, concluded in a 2020 report that Binance received criminal funds totalling $ 770 million in 2019 alone, more than any other crypto substitute. Binance CEO Changpeng Zhao accused Chainalysis on Twitter of “ bad business etiquette. ”
Binance declined to make Zhao available for an interview. Responding to written questions, Chief Communications Officer Patrick Hillmann said Binance did not consider Reuters ’ calculation to be accurate. He did not respond to requests to provide Binance ’ s own figures for the cases identified in this article. He said Binance was building “ the most sophisticate cyber forensics team on the planet ” and was seeking to “ far improve our ability to detect illegal crypto action on our chopine. ”
As Reuters reported in January, Binance kept weak money-laundering checks on its users until mid-2021, despite concerns raised by elder caller figures starting at least three years earlier. In answer to that article, Binance said it was helping drive higher diligence standards and the report was “ wildly outdated. ” In August 2021, Binance compelled new and existing users to submit identification .
With around 120 million users global, Binance processes crypto trades worth hundreds of billions of dollars a month. The sector was hit by a crisp correction in May, its overall respect slump by a quarter to $ 1.3 trillion. Zhao said he saw “ modern found resilience ” in the commercialize .
meanwhile, his company is extending its pass into traditional occupation, announcing a $ 200 million investment in media group Forbes this year and committing $ 500 million to Tesla knob Elon Musk ’ s bid to take over Twitter. Forbes abandoned its plans to list publicly last week and a Forbes spokesperson said Binance ’ mho investment would not take place. Musk didn ’ t respond to requests for comment .
The flow of illegitimate crypto through Binance, identified by Reuters, represents a little fortune of the exchange ’ s overall trade volumes. Yet as policymakers and regulators, including U.S. Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen and european Central Bank President Christine Lagarde, voice refer over the illegal use of cryptocurrencies, the barter demonstrates how criminals have turned to the engineering to launder dirty money .
For this article, Reuters interviewed law enforcement officials, researchers, and crime victims in a twelve countries, including in Europe and the United States, to assess the survive shock of past gaps in Binance ’ s anti-money wash rules .
Reuters reviewed detail data about Binance client transactions on “ darknet ” sites – marketplaces for narcotics, weapons and other illegal items. Most of the datum was provided by Crystal Blockchain, an Amsterdam-based psychoanalysis firm that helps companies and governments trace crypto funds. The data showed that from 2017 to 2022, buyers and sellers on the worldly concern ’ south largest darknet drugs commercialize, a Russian-language locate called Hydra, used Binance to make and receive crypto payments worth $ 780 million. Reuters cross-check these figures with another analysis firm, which agreed with the findings .
In April, the U.S. Justice Department announced that U.S. and german jurisprudence enforcement had seized Hydra ’ second servers. The U.S. indicted the servers ’ alleged administrator for conspiring to commit money wash and circulate illicit drugs. The site was closed toss off and the allege administrator arrested by russian authorities .
The datum compiled for Reuters included crypto that passed through multiple digital wallets before reaching Binance. For crypto firms, such “ indirect ” flows with links to known fishy sources are loss flags for money wash, according to the Financial Action Task Force, a global watchdog that sets standards for authorities combating fiscal crime. Money launderers much use sophisticate techniques to create complex chains of crypto transfers that cover their tracks, the FATF and the International Monetary Fund have said .
Hillmann, the Binance spokesperson, said the Hydra digit was “ inaccurate and grandiloquent ” and that Reuters was wrongly including indirect flows in its calculation .
Reuters then asked how Binance views its province to monitor its indirect exposure to dirty money. Hillmann replied that “ what ’ sulfur significant to note is not where the funds come from – as crypto deposits can not be blocked – but what we do after the funds are deposited. ” He said Binance uses transaction monitoring and risk assessments to “ ensure that any illegal funds are tracked, frigid, recovered and/or returned to their rightful owner. ” Binance is working closely with law enforcement to dismantle criminal networks using cryptocurrencies, including in Russia, he said .
Reuters reviewed documentation from criminal and civil cases. A inactive open civil case in the United States alleges that in 2020 Binance declined a request from investigators and lawyers, acting on behalf of a hack victim, to permanently freeze an report that was being used to launder stolen funds. Binance, which disputes the U.S. woo ’ south jurisdiction, confirmed to Reuters that it lone put a irregular freeze on the account. Hillmann blamed a failure by law enforcement to submit a seasonably request via Binance ’ s web portal and then answer the exchange ’ s follow-up questions .
In Germany, police said investigators began seeing criminals in Europe turn to Binance in 2020 to launder some of the proceeds from investment imposter schemes that caused victims, many of them pensioners, to lose in full 750 million euro ( $ 800 million ). The criminals ’ practice of Binance has not been previously reported .
Reuters reporting besides reveals for the beginning time how North Korea ’ sulfur Lazarus used Binance to launder some of the cryptocurrency stolen from Eterbase. A smaller assign of the funds were laundered at the lapp clock through another major exchange, Seychelles-based Huobi, which declined to comment .
After another burglarize in March this year, when Lazarus stole over $ 600 million from an on-line game involving cryptocurrencies, Zhao said north korean hackers had transferred an unspecified measure of the funds to Binance. Hillmann told Reuters that Binance has identified and freeze more than $ 5 million and is assisting law enforcement with its investigation. He didn ’ t provide further details .
The United States sanctioned Lazarus in 2019 over cyber attacks designed to support North Korea ’ s weapons programmes, calling it an legal document of the area ’ s intelligence servicing – an accusation Pyongyang called “ evil slander. ” North Korea ’ s mission to the United Nations did not respond to emailed questions. Blockchain research worker Chainalysis estimates that Lazarus stole crypto worth $ 1.75 billion by 2020 that largely flowed through nameless exchanges .
“ The Hydra is thriving ”
Zhao, known as CZ, started Binance in Shanghai in 2017. Three months late, he unveiled a new scheme, on an internal chat group, for the company ’ s future phase of development. “ Do everything to increase our commercialize share, and nothing else, ” Zhao wrote .
The priority, he said, was to ensure Binance overwhelm larger cryptocurrency exchanges and fended off competition from smaller rivals. “ profit, tax income, comfort, etc, all come second gear. ”
Asked to elaborate on this remark, Hillmann said, “ Neither CZ nor any early Binance business leader has ever suggested that increasing market partake should supersede conformity obligations. ”
Among the countries Zhao sought to expand in was Russia, which Binance described in a 2018 web log as a major market due to its “ hyperactive ” crypto community. A Reuters article in April detailed Binance ’ s efforts to dominate the crypto marketplace there and how, behind the scenes, the central was building ties with russian government agencies .
Binance has continued to provide limited services in Russia since the country ’ s invasion of Ukraine this year, despite requests from the government in Kyiv for exchanges to ban russian users as part of efforts to isolate Russia financially. Russia calls its actions in Ukraine a “ particular operation. ”
Reuters ’ modern report following the April article shows that many people who signed up to Binance in Russia weren ’ thyroxine using it for trade. alternatively, Binance became a key requital provider for Hydra, the elephantine darknet market, according to the blockchain data compiled for Reuters, a review of Hydra drug user forums, and interviews with illegal drug users and researchers .
After it was set up in 2015, Hydra distributed narcotics on behalf of drug dealers, all priced in bitcoin, to millions of buyers, by and large in Russia .
german patrol, in coordination with U.S. authorities, seized Hydra ’ mho servers in Germany in April, closing the web site down. The U.S. indicted a russian resident, Dmitry Pavlov, for administering the servers. A workweek by and by, russian authorities arrested Pavlov for allegedly dealing in drugs, a Moscow motor hotel said, adding he had filed an attract. Before his halt, Pavlov told the BBC he ran a licensed waiter company and was not aware it was hosting Hydra. Pavlov didn ’ t react to messages from Reuters sent via his company .
The Justice Department, describing Hydra as “ the earth ’ randomness largest and longest-running darknet market, ” said the locate had received in entire around $ 5.2 billion in cryptocurrency. Neither Binance nor any other payment provider linked to Hydra was named by the Justice Department, which declined to comment on Binance .
Hillmann told Reuters that Binance “ works close with law enforcement to target the illicit drug trade wind daily. ”
Sites like Hydra are lone accessible on a clandestine part of the internet, known as the darkness web, that requires a browser that hides a drug user ’ mho identity .
equally early as March 2018, Hydra users recommended on the locate ’ mho Russian-language forums that buyers use Binance to make purchases, citing the anonymity Binance afforded its clients at the time by allowing them to register with equitable an e-mail savoir-faire. “ This is the fastest and cheapest means I ’ ve tried, ” a exploiter wrote .

Cryptocurrency traders exchanged dozens of messages in 2021 and early 2022 about using Hydra on Binance ’ s own Russian residential district Telegram new world chat. “ The Hydra is thriving, ” wrote one last year .
Hydra transformed the narcotics market in Russia, researchers said. previously, drug users tended to buy from street dealers with cash. With Hydra, users selected substances on the site, paid the seller in bitcoin, and received coordinates to pick up the “ gem ” at a circumspect placement. Buyers, known as “ care for hunters, ” found their purchases buried in forests at the edge of town, hidden in drivel dumps, or stuffed behind lax bricks in abandoned buildings .
According to a report by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Hydra increased the handiness of drugs in Russia and drove a surge in demand for stimulants, such as methamphetamine and mephedrone. Drug-related deaths rose by two-thirds between 2018 and 2020, figures from Russia ’ south submit anti-drug committee picture .
At the prison term of the U.S. and german operation to seize Hydra ’ sulfur servers, the Drug Enforcement Administration, which supported the probe, said the market ’ sulfur services “ threaten the safety and health of communities army for the liberation of rwanda and wide. ” The DEA referred Reuters to the Justice Department for far remark .
Aleksey Lakhov, a director at russian charity foundation garment Humanitarian Action, which researches drug use, said he was “ horrified ” by how Hydra fuelled addiction. “ During the days I used drugs, you had to know person at least ” in order to obtain narcotics, Lakhov, a reclaim addict, added .
Alexandra, a 24-year-old office coach in Moscow, started buying mephedrone and ketamine on Hydra in 2019 to help cope with her bipolar disorder. several friends who used Hydra told her Binance was the safest way to pay dealers, Alexandra told Reuters, speaking on condition she be identified merely with her first identify. Some of them used imposter personal information to open Binance accounts, she said, but she uploaded a copy of her passport. Binance never blocked or queried any of her payments. Asked about her account, Binance said it was continually strengthening its know-your-customer capabilities .
The arrangement ’ s anonymity made it easy to buy drugs on the darknet, Alexandra said. “ It was like buying chocolate in the memory. ”

“ Do everything to increase our market share, and nothing else. ”

As her drug use became an everyday habit, she went days without sleep, wracked by hallucinations and depression. “ I felt like I was dying, and I liked that find, ” she said. finally, she sought psychiatric serve and received therapy. Since then, she just used Hydra to buy cannabis .
State Department reports from 2019 and 2020, without mentioning Hydra or Binance, warned that drug traffickers in Russia were using virtual currencies to launder proceeds. A State Department spokesman declined to comment on Hydra and Binance .
As reported by Reuters in its January probe, an inner document shows that Binance was aware of the risk of illegal finance in Russia. Binance ’ s complaisance department assigned Russia an “ extreme point ” hazard fink in 2020 in an judgment that was reviewed by Reuters. It cited money-laundering reports by the U.S. State Department. Hillmann told Reuters Binance had taken more action against russian money launderers than any early crypto rally, citing a bachelor of arts in nursing it imposed on three russian digital currency platforms that were sanctioned by the United States .
Crypto flows between Binance and Hydra dropped precipitously after the exchange tightened its customer checks in August 2021, the data from Crystal Blockchain shows .
“ Financial exemption ”
For the past five years, Binance has allowed traders on its platform to buy and sell a coin called Monero, a cryptocurrency that offers users anonymity. While bitcoin transactions are recorded on a public blockchain, Monero obscures the digital addresses of senders and receivers. A Beginner ’ s Guide to Monero by Binance, available on its web site, said such coins were “ desirable for those seeking true fiscal confidentiality. ”
Zhao has spoken in favor of “ privacy coins, ” of which Monero is the most trade. During a 2020 video call with staff, a recording of which Reuters reviewed, Zhao said privacy was part of people ’ s “ fiscal freedom. ” He didn ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate citation Monero, but said Binance had funded other privacy coin projects.

Monero proved to be democratic among Binance users. As of late May, Binance was processing Monero trades worth about $ 50 million a sidereal day, far more than other exchanges, according to data from the CoinMarketCap web site .
Law enforcement agencies in Europe and the United States have warned that Monero ’ south anonymity makes it a potential tool for money launderers. The U.S. Department of Justice, in a 2020 report, said it considered the use of “ anonymity enhanced cryptocurrencies ” like Monero “ a bad natural process that is indicative of possible criminal impart. ”
On respective darknet forums that Reuters reviewed, over 20 users wrote about buying Monero on Binance to purchase illegal drugs. They shared how-to guides with names like DNM Bible, a citation to darknet markets .
“ XMR is necessity to anyone buying drugs on the Dark web, ” wrote one user on the forum Dread, referring to Monero ’ sulfur heart symbol. It international relations and security network ’ triiodothyronine possible to contact users through the forum so Reuters was unable to reach these people for comment .
Hillmann told Reuters there were “ many legitimate reasons why users require privacy, ” such as when opposition groups in authoritarian regimes are denied dependable access to funds. Binance opposed anyone using crypto to buy or sell illegal drugs, he said .
Hackers have used Binance to convert stolen funds into Monero .

In August 2020, hackers hijacked a cryptocurrency wallet belonging to an australian serviceman named Steve Kowalski by tricking him into downloading malware, Kowalski said in a witness argument to australian patrol. They withdrew the 1,400 bitcoin he held in the wallet, worth some $ 16 million at the time. Kowalski told patrol he had bought the bitcoin for $ 500,000 six years earlier and they were a significant parcel of his assets .
Investigators hired by Kowalski traced most of his bitcoin through a series of wallets to six Binance accounts, where the coins were exchanged for Monero, according to testimony and blockchain psychoanalysis reports filed as partially of an ongoing civil complaint Kowalski submitted last class against Binance in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Kowalski declined to comment .
Kowalski ’ second probe showed that a U.S. software adviser called Brandon Ng, then living in Florida, controlled most of the Binance accounts. Ng testified to the court that a crypto trade partner, who he knew online alone by the username MoneyTree, deposited the bitcoin in his Binance accounts. MoneyTree, Ng said, paid him a 1 % deputation to convert the bitcoin into Monero on Binance and then transfer it back. A lawyer for Ng, Spencer Silverglate, said MoneyTree probable traded through Ng to shield his identity from Binance. Ng testified that he was not mindful he was laundering stolen bitcoin .
MoneyTree did not respond to emails sent by Reuters to an address that Ng provided to the motor hotel. Silverglate, the lawyer, said Ng did not steal or launder Kowalski ’ randomness bitcoin and was an “ innocent downriver trader. ”
Ng ’ s Monero trade had earlier raised alarms at another crypto exchange called Poloniex, based in the United States, where he besides had an account. In mid-2019, his Poloniex account was freeze after it was flagged for “ high hazard exposure ” to money laundering due to Monero withdrawals totalling over $ 1 million, according to a compendious filed with the court. Poloniex didn ’ t react to a request for comment .
Binance deal with Ng differently. Kowalski ’ s private investigators and lawyers contacted Binance soon after the larceny, before Ng converted all the funds, and repeatedly asked Binance to permanently freeze Ng ’ second accounts, their written communications show. The letters, filed with the woo, besides accuse Binance of not responding to police requests to secure the assets for the duration of their probe .
Binance imposed a weeklong freeze on the accounts, but then lifted it, allowing Ng to exchange the steal bitcoin for Monero over respective months. In his response to Reuters, Hillmann said police enforcement failed to request a permanent freeze via Binance ’ s web portal within the weeklong menstruation and then didn ’ thyroxine answer the exchange ’ s follow-up questions .
A Binance investigation team extremity told one of the private investigators in a message that “ while it is highly probably the paths leading to this score are malicious, ” Binance could not prove the accounts were “ created to facilitate laundering. ” When the detective persisted, the team extremity scolded him for “ several issues with your tone. ”
In a submission last December to the woo in Florida, Binance said the encase should be dismissed as the court did not have jurisdiction over the company. To determine the topic, the evaluate has granted discovery, a process where parties request documents from each early .
Hillmann told Reuters that Binance investigates all allegations of wrongdoing on its chopine and takes appropriate military action if its investigators uncover error .
Eterbase, the Bratislava-based exchange hacked by the North Koreans, sought Binance ’ sulfur avail, excessively .
After news of the hack by Lazarus, Zhao tweeted on Sept. 9, 2020 : “ Will do what we can to assist. ” But when Eterbase emailed Binance ’ s support center, a Binance team extremity said they could not share any bill data without a jurisprudence enforcement request, according to communications between the two firms seen by Reuters .
Eterbase submitted a criminal ailment to Slovakia ’ s National Crime Agency. In June, 2021, the agency wrote to Binance requesting information and saying the funds were stolen by “ anonymous attackers united under the Lazarus hacking group. ” Binance replied that it could not identify accounts connected to the hack. In July, after another, more detail police request, Binance sent the agency records on 24 accounts, adding they had been evacuate for over nine months as “ the assets have instantaneously been traded. ”
Hillmann said Binance in full cooperated with requests received from slovakian authorities and helped them to identify the relevant accounts .
The records, reviewed by Reuters, showed the only personal information Binance held on the report holders was their e-mail addresses, many of which were based on misspell well-known names, such as “ bejaminfranklin, ” the american establish forefather, and “ garathbale, ” the Welsh soccer player. The hackers used virtual secret networks to obscure their devices ’ locations, the records prove .
Within around 20 minutes of opening most of the accounts, the hackers passed an unspecified “ security check ” allowing them to withdraw crypto, according to the account records. Each account then converted portions of the steal funds into merely under two bitcoin, the withdrawal limit at the time for a basic bill without identification .
After the hack, Eterbase stopped its operations and late filed for bankruptcy. Auxt, the party co-founder, said the losses meant Eterbase could no retentive cover its expenses. “ The hack killed our business, ” he said. Victims of the hack are even to be reimbursed .
“ Black fix ”
In individual, Zhao has bemoaned that Binance needs to carry out checks on its customers. During the 2020 video call, Zhao told staff that know-your-customer rules were “ unfortunately a requirement ” of Binance ’ second business .
At times, the submission team struggled with its workload. In a message to staff in January 2019, Zhao asked other departments to help the complaisance team run background checks due to an “ overwhelming ” number of new users .
According to a group chat among Binance staff, the submission team sometimes approved accounts with inadequate documentation. A team extremity complained to colleagues that one exploiter was able to open an account by submitting three copies of the like reception from a meal at an indian restaurant. Hillmann said Binance ’ s know-your-customer checks are now “ highly twist ” and that it views such rules as both “ compulsory and welcome. ”
Current and erstwhile police officials in five countries told Reuters that criminal groups were among Binance ’ s growing customer base in late years .
In former 2019, Konrad Alber, a retire family lawyer in Germany, invested most of his savings on a trade platform he found on-line. He told Reuters he hoped it would supplement his little pension and allow his wife to stop working to support their life in a village in the Black Forest .
The chopine, called Grandefex, promised to “ unleash ” his money ’ s potential through a sophisticate algorithm. In an electronic mail, a sales congressman told Alber, who had little induct experience, that he could double any deposits within a class. Over 18 months, he wired about 35,000 euros to Grandefex ’ s deposit accounts .
then, survive June, when he asked Grandefex to pay him his expected profits, he discovered his money had been transferred to Binance, emails and bank account records show. Alber begged Grandefex by electronic mail to return his funds, telling their finance department he had a “ mountain of debt ” and was suffering a “ aflutter breakdown. ”
In response, Grandefex told him, “ You will merely not receive your money. ”
Reuters ’ emails and calls to Grandefex went unanswered. In June 2020, Germany ’ south governor said the chopine was unauthorized and ordered its closing .
Grandefex was one of a string of fudge trade websites set up by organised crime groups that have scammed some 750 million euro from european citizens, many of them pensioners, according to German, Austrian and spanish authorities. Six people involved in patrol investigations into the scams told Reuters that the groups, which operate visit centres in Eastern Europe, have shifted to laundering their gains through crypto exchanges, particularly Binance .
Hillmann said Binance is tackling investment imposter by identifying victims and suspects, and whenever possible, freeze criminal proceeds .
A Vienna-based non-profit organization, the european Funds Recovery Initiative, which supports victims of investment fraud, has received around 220 complaints from people whose steal savings were converted into crypto. Almost two-thirds lost money that was funnelled through Binance, totalling 7.4 million euro, said the inaugural ’ s co-founder, Elfi Sixt. other investment frauds targeting people in Turkey, Britain and Pakistan besides used Binance, authorities have said .
Police officers and lawyers told Reuters that it is harder for fraud victims to recover lost funds when they pass through a crypto exchange. In many countries, consumers can ask their banks to freeze or reimburse stolen funds. Binance requires victims to sign non-disclosure agreements as a circumstance for temporarily freezing assets and insists on the mastermind interest of jurisprudence enforcement to serve claims, according to its web site .
Sixt said she has followed this process to no avail. “ I ’ ve never succeeded at getting money back from Binance. ” Asked about this, Hillmann didn ’ t directly respond .
Alber, the retire lawyer, sent a letter to Binance, but said he never heard second. In June 2021, the 67-year-old reported the larceny of his savings and their transmit to Binance to local patrol. The prosecutor ’ south office in the nearby town of Baden-Baden said his case remains under probe. Binance said it had no record of Alber ’ south letter .
At a patrol station in the Lower Saxony city of Braunschweig, the state of matter cyber crime unit is investigating a similar victimize that used Binance. Chief Inspector Mario Krause, two of his investigators and the prosecutor leading the probe detailed the lawsuit to Reuters .
last October, the unit coordinated with bulgarian authorities to raid a call option center in the capital Sofia, which police said run hundreds of talk through one’s hat on-line deal platforms .
They obtained evidence, reviewed by Reuters, including a database showing the operators had taken in deposits totalling 94 million euro. Videos police seized from an employee ’ sulfur phone depicted what Krause described as a “ Wolf of Wall Street ” atmosphere at the visit center. Staff call gongs and popped champagne bottles when they secured big deposits. A scoreboard showed which employee had raked in the most money each week. They partied on yachts and private jets .
In a affirmation at the prison term of the raid, the prosecutor ’ sulfur function said one fishy was arrested. The case prosecutor, Manuel Recha, told Reuters the administration ’ sulfur leaders are still at large. The company that ran the call center, Dortome BG, did not respond to requests to comment .
During the probe, the cyber unit sought to trace where the steal funds ended up .
Investigators tracked the money through many layers of deposit accounts to Binance and another substitute, U.S.-based Kraken, patrol said. By the time Binance and Kraken provided history records, the patrol said the funds had been withdrawn or sent to a “ mixer, ” a military service which anonymises crypto transactions by breaking them up and mixing them with other funds. The personal information held by both exchanges on the accounts was much talk through one’s hat or stolen from victims, the officers said .
Kraken told Reuters it has “ bank-grade ” customer checks and robust tools to prevent imposter. Kraken disputed that customer data provided to Braunschweig patrol was bogus, saying “ every index we have suggests these accounts were used by legalize clients. ”
The Germans ’ money trail went cold .
Krause said his team was struggling to make advancement. “ We ’ ra searching for a way out of the black hole, ” he said .
extra report from Michelle Nichols in New York
Black Hole
By Angus Berwick and Tom Wilson

photograph edit : Simon Newman
artwork direction : John Emerson
Edited by Janet McBride

reference :
Category : Finance

Post navigation

Leave a Comment

Trả lời

Email của bạn sẽ không được hiển thị công khai.