Article I, Section 8

The Text

The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the coarse Defense and cosmopolitan Welfare of the United States ; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States ;
To borrow Money on the credit of the United States ;
To regulate Commerce with extraneous Nations, and among the respective states, and with the indian Tribes ;
To establish an uniform rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States ;

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures ;
To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States ;
To establish Post Offices and post Roads ;
To promote the Progress of Science and utilitarian Arts, by securing for circumscribed Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries ;
To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court ;
To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations ;
To declare War, concession Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water ;
To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years ;
To provide and maintain a Navy ;

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces ;
To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions ;
To provide for organizing, arming, and discipline, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress ;
To exercise exclusive legislation in all Cases any, over such District ( not exceeding ten-spot Miles square ) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needed Buildings ; —And
To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the waive Powers, and all other Powers vested by this fundamental law in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thence .

The Meaning

article I, segment 8, specifies the powers of Congress in great detail. These powers are limited to those listed and those that are “ necessary and proper ” to carry them out. All early lawmaking powers are left to the states. The First Congress, concerned that the limited nature of the federal government was not clear adequate in the original Constitution, subsequently adopted Amendment X, which reserves to the states or to the people all the powers not specifically granted to the federal government .
The most significant of the particular powers that the Constitution enumerates is the power to set taxes, tariffs and early means of raising federal tax income, and to authorize the consumption of all federal funds. In addition to the tax powers in Article I, Amendment XVI authorized Congress to establish a national income tax. The world power to appropriate federal funds is known as the “ ability of the purse. ” It gives Congress great authority over the executive branch, which must appeal to Congress for all of its fund. The federal government borrows money by issuing bonds. This creates a home debt, which the United States is obligated to repay .
Since the turn of the twentieth century, federal legislation has dealt with many matters that had previously been managed by the states. In passing these laws, Congress frequently relies on might granted by the department of commerce clause, which allows Congress to regulate occupation activities “ among the states. ”

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The commerce clause gives Congress wide power to regulate many aspects of our economy and to pass environmental or consumer protections because indeed much of commercial enterprise today, either in fabricate or distribution, crosses country lines. But the commerce article powers are not unlimited .
In late years, the U.S. Supreme Court has expressed greater refer for states ’ rights. It has issued a serial of rulings that limit the office of Congress to pass legislation under the commerce clause or other powers contained in Article I, part 8. For exercise, these rulings have found unconstitutional union laws aimed at protecting buffet women or protecting schools from gunman violence on the grounds that these types of policy matters are by rights managed by the states .
In accession, Congress has the might to coin money, create the postal service, army, navy and lower federal courts, and to declare war. Congress besides has the duty of determining naturalization, how immigrants become citizens. such laws must apply uniformly and can not be modified by the states .

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