This recipe is particularly utilitarian when finding the probability of an event directly is difficult. If there is a 60 % chance of rain tomorrow, what is the probability of fair weather ? The obvious answer, 40 %, is an example of the following general rule. In words the complements are described by “ the number rolled is not even ” and “ the phone number rolled is not greater than two. ” Of run easy descriptions would be “ the number rolled is leftover ” and “ the act rolled is less than three. ” In the sample space S = { 1,2,3,4,5,6 } the equate sets of outcomes are E = { 2,4,6 } and T = { 3,4,5,6 }. The complements are E c = { 1,3,5 } and T c = { 1,2 }. Two events connected with the experiment of rolling a single die are E : “ the number rolled is even ” and T : “ the number rolled is greater than two. ” Find the complement of each. The complement of an consequence The event does not occur. A in a sample space S, denoted A c, is the solicitation of all outcomes in S that are not elements of the set A. It corresponds to negating any description in words of the event A. Since E = { 2,4,6 } and we want A to have no elements in common with E, any event that does not contain any flush count will do. Three choices are { 1,3,5 } ( the complement E vitamin c, the odds ), { 1,3 }, and { 5 }. In the experiment of rolling a single die, find three choices for an event A then that the events A and E : “ the number rolled is even ” are mutually exclusive. Any event A and its complement A c are mutually exclusive, but A and B can be mutually exclusive without being complements. Events A and B are mutually single if and only if For A and B to have no outcomes in common means precisely that it is impossible for both A and B to occur on a single trial of the random experiment. This gives the following convention. Events A and B are mutually exclusive Events that can not both occur at once. if they have no elements in common. Since P ( 1 ) + P ( 6 ) = 4 ∕ 12 = 1 ∕ 3 and the probabilities of all six outcomes add up to 1, The information on the probabilities of the six outcomes that we have so far is In both cases the sample space is S = { 1,2,3,4,5,6 } and the event in question is the overlap E ∩ T = { 4,6 } of the former case. In words the intersection is described by “ the number rolled is flush and is greater than two. ” The only numbers between one and six that are both even and greater than two are four and six, corresponding to E ∩ T given above. The sample space is S = { 1,2,3,4,5,6 }. Since the outcomes that are park to E = { 2,4,6 } and T = { 3,4,5,6 } are 4 and 6, E ∩ T = { 4,6 }. In the experiment of rolling a unmarried die, find the intersection E ∩ T of the events east : “ the number rolled is even ” and T : “ the act rolled is greater than two. ” To say that the event A ∩ B occurred means that on a particular test of the experiment both A and B occurred. A ocular representation of the intersection of events A and B in a sample quad S is given in Figure 3.4 “ The Intersection of Events “. The intersection corresponds to the shaded lensshaped region that lies within both ovals. The intersection of events Both events occur. A and B, denoted A ∩ B, is the solicitation of all outcomes that are elements of both of the sets A and B. It corresponds to combining descriptions of the two events using the password “ and. ”
Union of Events
Definition
The union of events One or the other event occurs. A and B, denoted A ∪ B, is the collection of all outcomes that are elements of one or the early of the sets A and B, or of both of them. It corresponds to combining descriptions of the two events using the news “ or. ”
To say that the event A ∪ B occurred means that on a particular test of the experiment either A or B occurred ( or both did ). A ocular theatrical performance of the coupling of events A and B in a sample space S is given in Figure 3.5 “ The Union of Events “. The union corresponds to the shaded region .
visualize 3.5 The Union of Events A and B
Example 15
In the experiment of rolling a single die, find the union of the events vitamin e : “ the number rolled is even ” and T : “ the number rolled is greater than two. ”
solution :
Since the outcomes that are in either E= { 2,4,6 } or T= { 3,4,5,6 } ( or both ) are 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, E∪T= { 2,3,4,5,6 }. notice that an result such as 4 that is in both sets is still listed alone once ( although strictly speaking it is not incorrect to list it twice ) .
In words the union is described by “ the total rolled is even or is greater than two. ” Every number between one and six except the number one is either flush or is greater than two, corresponding to E ∪ T given above .
Example 16
A twochild syndicate is selected at random. Let B denote the event that at least one child is a son, let D denote the consequence that the genders of the two children differ, and let M denote the event that the genders of the two children pit. Find B ∪ D and B∪M .
solution :
A sample space for this experiment is S= { bb, bg, sarin, gg }, where the foremost letter denotes the gender of the firstborn child and the second letter denotes the sex of the second child. The events B, D, and M are
B= { bb, bg, gigabyte } D= { bg, gigabyte } M= { bb, gg }
Each result in D is already in B, so the outcomes that are in at least one or the other of the sets B and D is just the determined B itself : B∪D= { bb, bg, gigabyte } =B .
Every result in the hale sample space S is in at least one or the other of the sets B and M, sol B∪M= { bb, bg, great britain, gg } =S .
The follow Additive Rule of Probability is a useful formula for calculating the probability of A∪B .
Additive Rule of Probability
P(A∪B)=P(A)+P(B)−P(A∩B)
The next model, in which we compute the probability of a union both by counting and by using the formula, shows why the last term in the formula is needed .
Example 17
Two fair dice are thrown. Find the probabilities of the trace events :
 both dice show a four
 at least one die shows a four
solution :
As was the case with tossing two identical coins, actual experience dictates that for the sample distribution distance to have equally probably outcomes we should list outcomes as if we could distinguish the two dice. We could imagine that one of them is crimson and the other is green. then any result can be labeled as a pair of numbers as in the following display, where the first count in the couple is the number of dots on the top face of the green die and the second count in the pair is the number of dots on the top confront of the crimson fail .
111213141516212223242526313233343536414243444546515253545556616263646566
 There are 36 equally likely outcomes, of which exactly one corresponds to two fours, so the probability of a pair of fours is 1/36.

From the postpone we can see that there are 11 pairs that correspond to the event in question : the six pairs in the fourthly course ( the green die shows a four ) plus the extra five pairs other than the copulate 44, already counted, in the fourth column ( the loss die is four ), so the answer is 11/36. To see how the recipe gives the same number, let AG denote the event that the green die is a four and let AR denote the consequence that the bolshevik die is a four. then intelligibly by counting we get P ( AG ) =6∕36 and P ( AR ) =6∕36. Since AG∩AR= { 44 }, P ( AG∩AR ) =1∕36 ; this is the calculation in part ( a ), of class. thus by the Additive Rule of Probability ,
P ( AG∪AR ) =P ( AG ) +P ( AR ) −P ( AG−AR ) =636+636−136=1136
Example 18
A tutor service specializes in preparing adults for high school comparison tests. Among all the students seeking assistant from the service, 63 % necessitate aid in mathematics, 34 % indigence avail in English, and 27 % want aid in both mathematics and English. What is the share of students who need help in either mathematics or English ?
solution :
Imagine selecting a student at random, that is, in such a way that every student has the like prospect of being selected. Let M denote the event “ the student needs serve in mathematics ” and let E denote the consequence “ the student needs help in English. ” The information given is that P ( M ) =0.63, P ( E ) =0.34, and P ( M∩E ) =0.27. The additive rule of Probability gives
P ( M∪E ) =P ( M ) +P ( E ) −P ( M∩E ) =0.63+0.34−0.27=0.70
Note how the naïve intelligent that if 63 % want assistant in mathematics and 34 % motivation serve in English then 63 plus 34 or 97 % indigence help in one or the other gives a number that is besides big. The percentage that need help in both subjects must be subtracted off, else the people needing help in both are counted twice, once for needing help in mathematics and once again for needing aid in English. The simple sum of the probabilities would work if the events in doubt were mutually exclusive, for then P ( A∩B ) is zero, and makes no difference .
Example 19
Volunteers for a catastrophe standin effort were classified according to both peculiarity ( C : structure, east : department of education, M : medicate ) and linguistic process ability ( S : speaks a individual lyric fluently, T : speaks two or more languages fluently ). The results are shown in the follow bipartisan classification postpone :
Specialty  Language Ability  

S  T  
C  12  1 
E  4  3 
M  6  2 
The foremost row of numbers means that 12 volunteers whose peculiarity is construction talk a single lyric fluently, and 1 unpaid whose peculiarity is construction speaks at least two languages fluently. similarly for the other two rows .
A volunteer is selected at random, meaning that each one has an equal luck of being chosen. Find the probability that :
 his specialty is medicine and he speaks two or more languages;
 either his specialty is medicine or he speaks two or more languages;
 his specialty is something other than medicine.
solution :
When information is presented in a twoway classification table it is typically convenient to adjoin to the board the row and column totals, to produce a fresh table like this :
Specialty  Language Ability  Total  

S  T  
C  12  1  13 
E  4  3  7 
M  6  2  8 
Total  22  6  28 
 The probability sought is P ( M∩T ). The table shows that there are 2 such people, out of 28 in all, hence P ( M∩T ) =2∕28≈0.07 or about a 7% chance.

The probability sought is P ( M∪T ). The third base row sum and the thousand sum in the sample give P ( M ) =8∕28. The second column sum and the thousand sum feed P ( T ) =6∕28. frankincense using the result from share ( a ) ,
P ( M∪T ) =P ( M ) +P ( T ) −P ( M∩T ) =828+628−228=1228≈0.43
or about a 43 % probability . 
This probability can be computed in two ways. Since the event of interest can be viewed as the event C ∪ E and the events C and E are mutually single, the answer is, using the first two quarrel totals ,
P ( C∪E ) =P ( C ) +P ( E ) −P ( C∩E ) =1328+728−028=2028≈0.71
On the other pass, the event of sake can be thought of as the complement Mc of M, therefore using the value of P ( M ) computed in part ( bcomplex vitamin ) ,
P ( Mc ) =1−P ( M ) =1−828=2028≈0.71
as earlier .
Key Takeaway
 The probability of an event that is a complement or union of events of known probability can be computed using formulas.
Exercises

For the sample space S= { a, b, cytosine, vitamin d, e } identify the complement of each event given .
 A= { a, five hundred, einsteinium }
 B= { bacillus, deoxycytidine monophosphate, five hundred, east }
 S

For the sample space S= { roentgen, mho, t, u, v } identify the complement of each event given .
 R= { thymine, uranium }
 T= { radius }
 ∅ (the “empty” set that has no elements)

The sample space for three tosses of a coin is
S= { hhh, hht, hth, htt, thh, tht, tth, ttt }
define events
hydrogen : at least one drumhead is observedM : more heads than tails are observed List the outcomes that comprise H and M.
 List the outcomes that comprise H ∩ M, H ∪ M, and Hc.
 Assuming all outcomes are equally likely, find P ( H∩M ), P ( H∪M ), and P ( Hc ) .
 Determine whether or not Hc and M are mutually exclusive. Explain why or why not.

For the experiment of rolling a individual sixsided die once, define events
t : the issue rolled is threeG : the number rolled is four or greater List the outcomes that comprise T and G.
 List the outcomes that comprise T ∩ G, T ∪ G, Tc, and ( T∪G ) c .
 Assuming all outcomes are equally likely, find P ( T∩G ), P ( T∪G ), and P ( Tc ) .
 Determine whether or not T and G are mutually exclusive. Explain why or why not.

A extra deck of 16 cards has 4 that are blue, 4 yellow, 4 green, and 4 red. The four cards of each discolor are numbered from one to four. A individual tease is drawn at random. Define events
bel : the card is blueR : the card is redN : the number on the card is at most two List the outcomes that comprise B, R, and N.
 List the outcomes that comprise B ∩ R, B ∪ R, B ∩ N, R ∪ N, Bc, and ( B∪R ) c .
 Assuming all outcomes are equally likely, find the probabilities of the events in the previous part.
 Determine whether or not B and N are mutually exclusive. Explain why or why not.

In the context of the former trouble, define events
yttrium : the poster is yellowI : the number on the menu is not a oneJ : the number on the card is a two or a four List the outcomes that comprise Y, I, and J.
 List the outcomes that comprise Y ∩ I, Y ∪ J, I ∩ J, Ic, and ( Y∪J ) degree centigrade .
 Assuming all outcomes are equally likely, find the probabilities of the events in the previous part.
 Determine whether or not Ic and J are mutually exclusive. Explain why or why not.

The Venn diagram provided shows a sample distribution space and two events A and B. Suppose P ( a ) =0.13, P ( b ) =0.09, P ( c ) =0.27, P ( vitamin d ) =0.20, and P ( east ) =0.31. Confirm that the probabilities of the outcomes add up to 1, then compute the take after probabilities .
 P ( A ) .
 P ( B ) .
 P ( Ac ) two ways: (i) by finding the outcomes in Ac and adding their probabilities, and (ii) using the Probability Rule for Complements.
 P ( A∩B ) .
 P ( A∪B ) two ways: (i) by finding the outcomes in A ∪ B and adding their probabilities, and (ii) using the Additive Rule of Probability.

The Venn diagram provided shows a sample space and two events A and B. Suppose P ( a ) =0.32, P ( boron ) =0.17, P ( speed of light ) =0.28, and P ( five hundred ) =0.23. Confirm that the probabilities of the outcomes add up to 1, then compute the watch probabilities .
 P ( A ) .
 P ( B ) .

P ( Ac )
two ways: (i) by finding the outcomes in Ac and adding their probabilities, and (ii) using the Probability Rule for Complements.
 P ( A∩B ) .
 P ( A∪B ) two ways: (i) by finding the outcomes in A ∪ B and adding their probabilities, and (ii) using the Additive Rule of Probability.

confirm that the probabilities in the twoway contingency board add up to 1, then use it to find the probabilities of the events indicated .
U V W A 0.15 0.00 0.23 B 0.22 0.30 0.10  P ( A ), P ( B ), P ( A∩B ) .
 P ( U ), P ( W ), P ( U∩W ) .
 P ( U∪W ) .
 P ( Vc ) .
 Determine whether or not the events A and U are mutually exclusive; the events A and V.

confirm that the probabilities in the bipartite eventuality board add up to 1, then use it to find the probabilities of the events indicated .
R S T M 0.09 0.25 0.19 N 0.31 0.16 0.00  P ( R ), P ( S ), P ( R∩S ) .
 P ( M ), P ( N ), P ( M∩N ) .
 P ( R∪S ) .
 P ( Rc ) .
 Determine whether or not the events N and S are mutually exclusive; the events N and T.
Basic

Make a instruction in ordinary English that describes the complement of each event ( do not simply insert the password “ not ” ) .
 In the roll of a die: “five or more.”
 In a roll of a die: “an even number.”
 In two tosses of a coin: “at least one heads.”
 In the random selection of a college student: “Not a freshman.”

Make a statement in ordinary English that describes the complement of each consequence ( do not simply insert the word “ not ” ) .
 In the roll of a die: “two or less.”
 In the roll of a die: “one, three, or four.”
 In two tosses of a coin: “at most one heads.”
 In the random selection of a college student: “Neither a freshman nor a senior.”

The sample space that describes all threechild families according to the genders of the children with deference to birth order is
S= { bbb, bbg, bgb, bgg, gbb, gbg, ggb, ggg } .
For each of the watch events in the experiment of selecting a threechild family at random, state of matter the complement of the consequence in the simplest potential terms, then find the outcomes that comprise the consequence and its complement . At least one child is a girl.
 At most one child is a girl.
 All of the children are girls.
 Exactly two of the children are girls.
 The first born is a girl.

The sample space that describes the twoway classification of citizens according to gender and public opinion on a political issue is
S= { medium frequency, ma, manganese, ff, fa, fn } ,
where the first letter denotes gender ( megabyte : male, fluorine : female ) and the second opinion ( degree fahrenheit : for, a : against, north : neutral ). For each of the stick to events in the experiment of selecting a citizen at random, department of state the complement of the event in the simplest potential terms, then find the outcomes that comprise the event and its complement . The person is male.
 The person is not in favor.
 The person is either male or in favor.
 The person is female and neutral.
 A tourist who speaks English and German but no other language visits a region of Slovenia. If 35 % of the residents speak English, 15 % speak German, and 3 % address both English and German, what is the probability that the tourist will be able to talk with a randomly encountered house physician of the region ?
 In a certain state 43 % of all automobiles have airbags, 27 % have antilock brakes, and 13 % have both. What is the probability that a randomly selected vehicle will have both airbags and antilock brakes ?

A manufacturer examines its records over the last year on a component depart received from outside suppliers. The breakdown on source ( supplier A, supplier B ) and quality ( H : high, U : available, D : defective ) is shown in the bipartite contingency postpone .
H U D A 0.6937 0.0049 0.0014 B 0.2982 0.0009 0.0009 The phonograph record of a separate is selected at random. Find the probability of each of the be events .
 The part was defective.
 The part was either of high quality or was at least usable, in two ways: (i) by adding numbers in the table, and (ii) using the answer to (a) and the Probability Rule for Complements.
 The part was defective and came from supplier B.
 The part was defective or came from supplier B, in two ways: by finding the cells in the table that correspond to this event and adding their probabilities, and (ii) using the Additive Rule of Probability.

Individuals with a particular aesculapian condition were classified according to the presence ( T ) or absence ( N ) of a likely toxin in their blood and the onset of the condition ( e : early, M : midrange, L : late ). The breakdown according to this classification is shown in the bipartisan contingency postpone .
E M L T 0.012 0.124 0.013 N 0.170 0.638 0.043 One of these individuals is selected at random. Find the probability of each of the following events .
 The person experienced early onset of the condition.
 The onset of the condition was either midrange or late, in two ways: (i) by adding numbers in the table, and (ii) using the answer to (a) and the Probability Rule for Complements.
 The toxin is present in the person’s blood.
 The person experienced early onset of the condition and the toxin is present in the person’s blood.
 The person experienced early onset of the condition or the toxin is present in the person’s blood, in two ways: (i) by finding the cells in the table that correspond to this event and adding their probabilities, and (ii) using the Additive Rule of Probability.

The breakdown of the students enrolled in a university course by classify ( F : freshman, So : sophomore, J : junior, Se : elder ) and academician major ( S : science, mathematics, or engineer, L : broad arts, O : other ) is shown in the twoway classification postpone .
Major Class F So J Se S 92 42 20 13 L 368 167 80 53 O 460 209 100 67 A student enrolled in the course is selected at random. Adjoin the rowing and column totals to the board and use the expanded mesa to find the probability of each of the stick to events .
 The student is a freshman.
 The student is a liberal arts major.
 The student is a freshman liberal arts major.
 The student is either a freshman or a liberal arts major.
 The student is not a liberal arts major.

The table relates the response to a fundraise solicitation by a college to its alumni to the number of years since commencement .
Response Years Since Graduation 0–5 6–20 21–35 Over 35 Positive 120 440 210 90 None 1380 3560 3290 910 An alumnus is selected at random. Adjoin the course and column totals to the table and use the expanded table to find the probability of each of the trace events .
 The alumnus responded.
 The alumnus did not respond.
 The alumnus graduated at least 21 years ago.
 The alumnus graduated at least 21 years ago and responded.
Applications

The sample space for tossing three coins is
S= { hhh, hht, hth, htt, thh, tht, tth, ttt } List the outcomes that correspond to the statement “All the coins are heads.”
 List the outcomes that correspond to the statement “Not all the coins are heads.”
 List the outcomes that correspond to the statement “All the coins are not heads.”
Additional Exercises
Answers

 { barn, c }
 { a }
 ∅

 H= { hhh, hht, hth, htt, thh, tht, tth }, M= { hhh, hht, hth, thh }
 H∩M= { hhh, hht, hth, thh }, H∪M=H, Hc= { ttt }
 P ( H∩M ) =4∕8, P ( H∪M ) =7∕8, P ( Hc ) =1∕8
 Mutually exclusive because they have no elements in common.

 B= { b1, b2, b3, b4 }, R= { r1, r2, r3, r4 }, N= { b1, b2, y1, y2, g1, g2, r1, r2 }
 B∩R=∅, B∪R= { b1, b2, b3, b4, r1, r2, r3, r4 }, B∩N= { b1, b2 }, R∪N= { b1, b2, y1, y2, g1, g2, r1, r2, r3, r4 }, Bc= { y1, y2, y3, y4, g1, g2, g3, g4, r1, r2, r3, r4 }, ( B∪R ) c= { y1, y2, y3, y4, g1, g2, g3, g4 }
 P ( B∩R ) =0, P ( B∪R ) =8∕16, P ( B∩N ) =2∕16, P ( R∪N ) =10∕16, P ( Bc ) =12∕16, P ( ( B∪R ) deoxycytidine monophosphate ) =8∕16
 Not mutually exclusive because they have an element in common.

 0.36
 0.78
 0.64
 0.27
 0.87

 P ( A ) =0.38, P ( B ) =0.62, P ( A∩B ) =0
 P ( U ) =0.37, P ( W ) =0.33, P ( U∩W ) =0
 0.7
 0.7
 A and U are not mutually exclusive because P ( A∩U ) is the nonzero number 0.15. A and V are mutually exclusive because P ( A∩V ) =0 .

 “four or less”
 “an odd number”
 “no heads” or “all tails”
 “a freshman”


“ All the children are boys. ”
consequence : { bbg, bgb, bgg, gbb, gbg, ggb, ggg } ,
complement : { bbb } 
“ At least two of the children are female child ” or “ There are two or three girls. ”
consequence : { bbb, bbg, bgb, gbb } ,
complement : { bgg, gbg, ggb, ggg } 
“ At least one child is a male child. ”
event : { ggg } ,
complement : { bbb, bbg, bgb, bgg, gbb, gbg, ggb } 
“ There are either no girls, precisely one girl, or three girls. ”
event : { bgg, gbg, ggb } ,
complement : { bbb, bbg, bgb, gbb, ggg } 
“ The first digest is a male child. ”
consequence : { gbb, gbg, ggb, ggg } ,
complement : { bbb, bbg, bgb, bgg }

“ All the children are boys. ”
 0.47

 0.0023
 0.9977
 0.0009
 0.3014

 920/1671
 668/1671
 368/1671
 1220/1671
 1003/1671

 { hhh }
 { hht, hth, htt, thh, tht, tth, ttt }
 { ttt }
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